exam 3 Flashcards


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bio 2
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1

fungi are important in the Earth's ecosystem because...

they release nutrients back into the environment through decomposition

2

a true coelom...

has a break in the endoderm

3

the moist skin of most terrestrial amphibians is important for

gas exchange

4

animals have a _____ life cycle, which means no mitosis occurs in the ______ stage

gametic, haploid

5

what ancestral trait is absent in apes?

tail

6

a fish is better suited than a jellyfish for...

-moving fast in one direction

-sensing the environment ahead of itself

7

you find a population of terrestrial vertebrates living in the Australian desert. which adaptation would you most expect to find these organisms

amniotic egg

8

during the heterokaryotic stage of fungal reproduction...

each cell contains at least two haploid nuclei

9

what do fungi and arthropods have in common?

both groups use chitin for support

10

fungi have an extremely high surface-to-volume ratio. what is the advantage of this characteristic to an organism that gets most of its nutrients through absorption

the high ratio allows for more material to be acquired from the surroundings and transported through the cell membrane

11

while sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encourages large numbers of fertilized eggs, the student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds the blastopore becomes the mouth. the embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. these eggs prob belong to a(n)...

mollusc

12

which can move around the fastest

#2 because its symmetry allows for the concentration of sense organs in the anterior end

13

what is the best explanation for why yeast cells are small and hyphae are thin?

absorptive nutrition is more efficient when all the cells are in contact with the nutrition sources

14

which of the following statements is correct with respect to the evolutionary relationship between chordates and invertebrates

chordates are more closely related to echinoderms than arthropods

15

what do animals ranging from corals to monkeys have in common?

presence of Hox genes

16

early development is completed with a placental connection between mother and offspring in this group of mammals

-eutherians

-marsupials

-monotremes

17

which of the following trends exhibited by human ancestors over time?

increase in brain size

18

the Cambrian period saw a rapid increase in

the number of different animal species, because the evolution of the Hox gene complex allowed for new animal morphologies

19

which of the following would you classify as something other than an animal?

choanoflagellate

20

the clade Anthropoidea includes all the following except

lemurs

21

what trait of fungi allows mycorrhizal fungi to benefit plants by increasing access to water and nutrients

network of tiny filaments in the soil

22

cnidarians like sea anemones and jellyfish use cnidocytes for the following

-defense

-prey capture

23

mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. which of the following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this habit?

their developmental origin

24

while walking in a forest, your friend observed a small animal crawling on a tree. the animal had a rigid body with three body segments, two large eyes, and six legs. to which clade di this animal most likely belong?

insect

25

which characteristic is common to all the modern representatives of ALL major reptilian lineages (turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, and birds)

presence of a notochord

26

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of both animals and fungi?

rigid cells walls due to chitin layers

27

large animals need specialized organs for gas exchange because ______

volume increases more rapidly than surface area as size increases

28

the presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still ____

not sink

29

an increase in atmospheric oxygen may directly allow for

larger animals with high levels of activity

30

phylogenic relationship of animals

radial symmetry arose independently in echinoderms and in cnidarians

31

the fact that snakes don't have legs is a

derived characteristic

32

which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans

a mineralized, bony skeleton

33

which of the following developmental features is the same for protostomes and deuterostomes

three tissue layers

34

crustaceans, insects, chelicerates, and nematodes all share which trait?

a cuticle

35

you find an invertebrate with an exoskeleton, 2 body segments, and 8 legs. it seems to inject poison into its prey via two appendages near the mouth. this animal is a

chelicerate

36

reproduction in fungi...

may be sexual or asexual

37

what do animals as diverse as a sponge and a shark have in common?

heterotrophy

38

mycelium absorbs the most nutrients per unit surface area, per unit times at

the edge

39

we find many adaptations among animals that increase the amount of surface area of a whole or part of the body in relation to the animal's total volume. Such adaptations include a Platyhelminthes flat body plan, the gills of a crustacean, and the tracheae tubes of an insect. these are adaptations for which of the following biological needs?

diffusion of oxygen into the body

40

which of the following pairs are most closely related in an evolutionary sense?

nematodes: insects

41

what trait is common between cnidarians, humans, and butterflies

specialized tissues

42

chemical inhibits the developments of an embryonic mosquito's endodermal cells. what would be a likely mechanism by which this pesticide works?

the mosquito would have trouble digesting food, due to impaired gut function

43

during chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?

1. endoskeleton

2. jaws

3. lung or lung derivatives

4. limbs with digits

5. amniotic eggs

44

which of the following clade of animals are amniotes

-crocodilians

-birds

-primates

45

which statement about protostomes is true

the first opening that forms during gastrulation becomes the mouth

(blastopore to mouth)

46

which statement about deuterostomes is true

the first opening that forms during gastrulation becomes the anus

(blastopore to anus)

47

what was an early selective advantage of a coelom in animals?

a coelom contributed to hydrostatic skeleton, allowing greater range of motion

48

a mushroom is

the result of a mating event between hyphae of two different mycelia

49

which of the following groups is most closely related to vertebrates

tunicates

50

plankton off the coat have bilateral symmetry as larvae, yet radial symmetry as adults, as well as many spines protruding from the body. this animal is likely

an echinoderm