HOST DEFENS

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Microbiology
Chapters 15, 16
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1

1.Which is mismatched?
tumor necrosis factor - increases chemotaxis and phagocytosis
interferon alpha and beta - inhibits viral replication
prostaglandins - activate eosinophils and B cells
interleukin-2 - stimulate T cell mitosis and B cell antibody production
serotonin - causes smooth muscle contraction

prostaglandins - activate eosinophils and B cells

2

2.Which is incorrect about inflammation?
Pyrogens cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
Fever could be beneficial to inhibiting the pathogen
Basophils and mast cells release histamine
serotonin causes smooth muscle contraction
it can last hours to years

Pyrogens cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

3

3.All of the following are events of early inflammation, except
macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis
exudate and pus can accumulate
chemical mediators and cytokines are released
capillaries become more permeable resulting in edema
brief vasoconstriction is followed by vasodilation

macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis

4

4. First line of defense may be described as
the coating of a pathogen by complement.
intact skin, mucous membranes, sebum, tears, and so forth.
nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
damage resulting in cell lysis.
the release of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in response to microbes.

intact skin, mucous membranes, sebum, tears, and so forth.

5

5.The leukocytes called natural killer lymphocytes
are nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
respond to the coating of a pathogen by complement.
release prostaglandins and leukotrienes in response to microbes.
are specialists in killing bacteria.
increase in allergies and helminth infection.

are nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.

6

6.Which of the following statements is TRUE of eosinophils?
They produce the coating of a pathogen by complement.
They decline during allergic reaction.
They release prostaglandins and leukotrienes in response to microbes.
They are in intact skin, sebum, tears, etc.
They secrete toxins onto the surface of helminth parasites.

They secrete toxins onto the surface of helminth parasites.

7

7.Fever is beneficial during viral infection because the higher temperature
increases vasodilation, bringing more leukocytes to the site of infection.
denatures viral proteins.
results in virus being shed in sweat.
prevents viral infection of fibroblasts.
increases the effectiveness of interferons.

increases the effectiveness of interferons.

8

8. Which of the following cells can use nonphagocytic means to kill bacteria?
natural killer cells
macrophages
eosinophils
neutrophils
both eosinophils and neutrophils

both eosinophils and neutrophils

9

9.Which of the following statements concerning the alternative complement system is TRUE?
Its activation is independent of antibodies
It is more efficient than the classical pathway.
It plays a very significant role in the elimination of parasitic helminths.
It works best on Gram-positive bacteria.
It is not useful in the early stages of fungal infection.

Its activation is independent of antibodies

10

10.Which of the following is the key difference in the roles of the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system?
triggering inflammation
the formation MACs
the effectiveness in killing Gram-negative bacteria
the range of microbe types that can be targeted
production of chemotactic factors.

the range of microbe types that can be targeted

11

11.The first and second lines of defense against microbial invasion are part of
innate immunity.
species resistance.
microbial antagonism.
adaptive immunity.
both species resistance and adaptive immunity.

innate immunity.

12

12. How is the development of autoimmunity normally prevented?
T lymphocytes require a specific set of cytokine signals to become activated.
Regulator T cells suppress autoimmune responses.
Clonal deletion of T cells and regulatory T cell suppression prevent autoreactive T cell activation.
Clonal deletion of T cells, lack of necessary cytokine signals, and regulatory T cell suppression prevent activation of autoreactive T cells.
T lymphocytes that respond to autoantigens in the thymus undergo clonal deletion.

T lymphocytes that respond to autoantigens in the thymus undergo clonal deletion.

13

13.IgE antibodies are best described as
the antibodies found in body secretions.
the trigger for antibody-dependent cellular toxicity (ADCC).
a cause of basophil and eosinophil degranulation.
the most common type of antibody in the blood during the initial phases of an immune response.
those involved in complement activation.

a cause of basophil and eosinophil degranulation.

14

14.Which of the following best describes IgM antibodies?
The are the most common type of antibody in the blood during the initial phases of an immune response.
They can cross the placenta to provide passive immunity.
They are the antibody class found in body secretions.
They cause basophils and eosinophils to degranulate.
They interact with phagocytes and NK cells.

The are the most common type of antibody in the blood during the initial phases of an immune response.

15

15.Vaccination triggers an immune response which produces ______ immunity.
artificial passive
natural active
natural passive
artificial active
both active and passive

artificial active

16

16-What type of immunity is produced by the body when a person contracts a disease?
naturally acquired passive immunity
innate immunity
artificially acquired active immunity
naturally acquired active immunity
artificially acquired passive immunity

naturally acquired active immunity

17

17-Which of the following statements regarding the cell-mediated immune response is TRUE?
A single cytotoxic T lymphocyte can kill many target cells.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not require antigen presentation to become activated.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes kill be producing hydrogen peroxide.
Helper T lymphocytes have no role in the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes interact with antibodies that have bound antigen to identify their target.

A single cytotoxic T lymphocyte can kill many target cells.

18

18-Which of the following statements concerning B cell receptors (BCRs) is FALSE?
They are bound to the surface of B lymphocytes and have two antigen-binding sites.
They are complementary in shape to a specific antigenic determinant that they may or may not encounter.
Scientists estimate that each person forms at least 1011 different types of B lymphocytes with distinct BCRs.
They are formed in response to an encounter with an antigen.
Each B lymphocyte is randomly generated with antibody variable regions that determine its BCR

They are formed in response to an encounter with an antigen.

19

19.Which of the following function(s) in agglutination?
IgD antibodies
IgG antibodies
IgA antibodies
IgE antibodies
IgA and IgG antibodies

IgA and IgG antibodies

20
card image

20.The type of immunoglobulin illustrated here is
IgD
IgA
IgG
IgE
IgM

IgM

21

21.The white blood cells primarily responsible for adaptive immunity are
NK lymphocytes and neutrophils
neutrophils and dendritic cells
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
macrophages and eosinophils
macrophages and neutrophils

B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes

22

22.All of the following are characteristics of an effective vaccine except
it should not require numerous boosters.
it should protect against wild forms of the pathogen.
it should stimulate only the antibody (B-cell) response.
it should be easy to administer.
it should have a relatively long shelf life.

it should stimulate only the antibody (B-cell) response.

23

23.Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?
Anamnestic response
Complement fixation
Agglutination
Neutralization
Opsonization

Agglutination

24

24-Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
Complement fixation
Agglutination
Neutralization
Anamnestic response
Opsonization

Opsonization

25

25 antigens converts these into plasma

B cells

26

26- involved in cell-mediated immunity

T-cells

27

27- directed against transplanted tissue cells and cancer cell

T-cells

28

28-Involved in allergic reactions, such as high fever

IGE

29

29-based on antibodies produced as a result of recovery from disease

naturally acquired active immunity

30

30- Passed to a fetus by transplacental transfer

naturally acquired passive immunity

31

31-Passed to an infant in human colostrum

naturally acquired passive immunity

32

32- passed to a recipient by injection of gamma globulin blood fraction from other people.

artificial acquired passive immunity

33

33- based on production of antibodies by vaccination

artificial acquired active immunity

34

34-chemical messenger by which cells of the immune system communicate with each other

cytokines

35

35- the relative strength of the antigen- antibody bond

specificity

36

36- A pentamer; the first antibody class to appear, though comparatively short-lived

IgM

37

37-The most abundant immunoglobulin in serum

IgG

38

38-Functions of the immunoglobulin class are not well defined, but it is found on the surface of B cells

IgD

39

39- often forms dimer of 2 immunoglobulin monomers

IgA

40

40- B cells that interact with self-antigens are destroyed.

clonal deletion

41

41-Present T-dependent antigens to B cells

T helper cell (TH)

42

42- recognize and target cells that carry endogenous antigens

T cytotoxic cell (TC)

43

43-Requires assistance of the a T-helper cell to form antibodies.

T-dependent antigen

44

44-Typically a protein

T-independent antigen

45

45-Cytokine that inhibits viral infections

interferon

46

46-released by cytotoxic T lymphocyte to lyse a target cell

Perforin

47

47-stem region of an antibody molecule

fc

48

48-Programmed cell death

Apoptosis

49

49-Adjective applied to the cells that actually produce antibodies after a B cells is stimulated by antigen

Plama

50

50- Clumping of antigens when biding with antibodies

Agllutination

51

51- coating of antibodies that enhances phagocytosis

Opsonization

52

52- resistance present at birth that does not involve humoral or cell-mediated immunity is --- immunity

innate

53

53- Induce migration of leukocytes into areas of infection

chemokines

54

54-Certain lymphocytes called---cells killer virus-infected cells and tumor cells. but are not immunologically specific. They contact and kill the target cells

Natural killer (NK)

55

55-An antigen-presenting cell (APC) that is not efficient at phagocytosisi, but is the most important in APC, is called a ---

dendritic cell

56

56-Antigen converts these into plasma cells.

B cells

57

57-Involved in cell-mediated immunity.

T cells

58

58-Responsible for rejection of foreign tissue transplants.

T cells

59

59-Directed against transplanted tissue cells & cancer cells.

T cells

60

60-Have been influenced by the thymus.

T cells

61

61-Defend mainly against bacteria & viruses circulating in blood & lymph.

B cells

62

62-Based on antibodies produced as a result of recovery from a disease.

Naturally acquired active immunity

63

63-Passed to fetus by transplacental transfer.

Naturally acquired passive immunity

64

64-Passed to recipient by injection of gamma globulin blood fraction from other people.

Artificially acquired passive immunity

65

65-Based on production of antibodies by vaccination.

Artificially acquired active immunity

66

66-An incomplete antigen that will react w/antibodies but will not, by itself, stimulate their formation.

Hapten

67

69-Chemical messengers by which cells of immune system communicate w/each other.

Cytokines

68

70-The relative strength of the antigen-antibody bond.

Affinity

69

71-A pentamer; the first antibody class to appear, though comparatively short-lived.

IgM

70

72-The most abundant immunoglobulin in serum.

IgG

71

73-Functions of this immunoglobulin class are not well defined, but it is found on the surface of B cells.

IgD

72

74-Involved in allergic reactions, such as hay fever.

IgE

73

75-Often forms dimers of 2 immunoglobulin monomers.

IgA

74

76-Synonym for antigens.

Immunogens

75

77-B cells that interact w/self-antgens are destroyed.

Clonal deletion

76

78-Protein bound to IgA immunoglobulins.

Secretory component

77

79-Blood fration that contains most of the serum immunoglobulins.

Gamma globulin

78

80-Activated B cell proliferates into a large clone of cells, some of which will differentiate into plasma cells.

Clonal selection

79

81-CD4+

T helper cells (TH)

80

82-CD8+

T cytotoxic cells (TC)

81

83-Can differentiate into CTLs.

T cytotoxic cells

82

84-Requires assitance of a T helper cell to form antibodies.

T-dependent antigen

83

86-Typically a polysaccharide such as a bacterial capsule.

T-independent antigen

84

87-Cytokine that inhibits viral infections.

Interferon

85

88-Released by a cytotoxic T lymphocyte to lyse a target cell.

Perforin

86

89-Coating of target cell w/antibody that enhances phagocytosis.

Opsonization

87

90-Coating of target cell w/antibody that leads to lysis by substances secreted by immune cells external to the target cell.

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

88

91-Releative amont of antibody in the serum.

Antibody titer.

89

92-Communicate between leukocytes.

Interleukins

90

93-A factor in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Tumor necrosis factor

91

94-Control pathways by which stem cells develop into different red or white blood cells.

Hematopoietic cytokines

92

95-Induce migration of leukocytes into areas of infection.

Chemokines

93

96-Resistance present at birth that does not involve humoral or cell-mediated immunity is ____________________________ immunity.

Natural acquired passive

94

97-The five monomers that constitute the IgM molecule are held together by a ________________.

joining chain

95

98-Certain lymphocytes called ________ cells kill virus-infected cells & tumor cells, but are not immunologically specific. They contact & kill the target cells.

NK (natural killer)

96

99-B cells derive their name from an organ in poultry, the ___________.

bursa of Fabricius

97

100-Low-molecular-weight substances such as penicillin that do not (by themselves) cause formation of antibodies are known immunologically as ___________.

haptens

98

101-The second time we encounter an antigen, our immune response is faster & more intense; this is termed the ______ response.

secondary

99

102-Recognize & target cells that carry endogenous antigens.

T cytotoxic cells