A&P 2 Final study guide Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by clairemccurry1110
345 views
updated 3 years ago by clairemccurry1110
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

A deficiency of which hormone can lead to diabetes insipidus?

Antidiuretic hormone

2

The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is

Thyroxine

3

The effects of this hormone oppose aldosterone.

Atrial natriuretic peptide

4

Cushing's disease results from an excess of

Glucocorticoids

5

Hormonal actions on cells affect all of the following except

Thickness of the plasma membrane

6

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.

Endrocrine

7

The humoral control of hormone release may be triggered which of the following factors?

blood level of an ion like calcium

8

The interstitial endocrine cells of the testes produce

testosterone

9

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

10

Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?

cyclic AMP

11

Platelets are pinched off from giant multinucleated cells in the bone marrow called

Megakararyocytes

12

Tissue factor is a factor in the ________ pathway.

Extrinsic

13

A substance that activates plasminogen might be useful to

Cause clot dissolution to proceed faster

14

Which of the following would you expect to see in increased numbers in a peripheral blood sample after donating a unit of blood?

reticulocytes

15

A fibrin network that contains trapped blood cells and platelets is called a(n)

Blood clot

16

The function of hemoglobin is to

Carry dissolved blood gases

17

Eileen is a strict vegan and therefore eats no animal products. She develops an anemia that her doctor thinks is caused by a nutritional deficiency. Which of the following is the likeliest candidate?

Vitamin B12 deficiency

18

A moving blood clot is called a(n)

Embolus

19

Blood that has clotting proteins removed is termed

Serum

20

Which of these descriptions best matches the term B lymphocytes?

Produce antibodies in response to antigens

21

Each of the following is true of the pineal gland except that it

is a component of the hypothalamus

22

The majority of thyroid hormones are secreted as ________ but small amounts of ________ is also secreted from the follicle.

T4;T3

23

Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?

catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

24

Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?

androgens

25

Which of the following is true of the endocrine system?

It responds slowly but effectively for maintaining homeostatic functions.

26

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

LH

27

If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?

both an increase in insulin and an increase in glucose

28

The hormone related to appetite control is

Leptin

29

Which is not a component of the RAAS and does not contribute to blood volume and electrolyte homeostasis?

Androgens

30

The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by

increased levels of melatonin

31

Hormones known as "catecholamines" are

<span>derivitives of the amino acid tyrosine</span>

32

Abnormally low production of LH and FSH results in

hypogonadism.

33

A kinase is an enzyme that performs

<span>phosphorylation</span>

34

After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,

gene transcription is initiated.

35

The humoral control of hormone release may be triggered which of the following factors?

blood level of an ion like calcium

36

A hormone might

alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it

37

One cause for insulin resistance in non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes is

insulin receptor down-regulation

38

Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.

Leptin

39

A patient is receiving exogenous cortisol in the form of hydrocortisone shots for a sinus infection. Their natural adrenal secretion of cortisol will decrease due to negative feedback on the ________ reducing the secretion of ________.

anterior pituitary; ACTH

40

The interstitial endocrine cells of the testes produce

Testosterone

41

Type 2 diabetes

can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.

42

A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is

Parathyroid hormone

43

Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?

erythropoietin

44

The function of red blood cells is to

carry oxygen to the cells and then carry away carbon dioxide

45

When carbon dioxide is bound to hemoglobin it is termed

carbaminohemoglobin

46

In an emergency situation, a patient may be given plasma expanders while blood typing occurs. The plasma expanders are used to

increase blood volume and maintain osmolarity.

47

Transferrin is an example of which kind of plasma protein?

metalloprotein (carries metal ion)

48

Hormones called ________ are involved in regulation of white blood cell populations.

colony-stimulating factors

49

When hemoglobin does not have oxygen bound to hemoglobin it is termed

...

50

Type AB blood has which of the following characteristics?

RBCs have both the A & B surface antigens and no ABO plasma antibodies

51

Which of these proteins functions to store or transport iron?

Ferritin, hemosiderin, and transferrin

52

The hormone that stimulates platelet formation is

Thrombopoietin

53

Plasma is closest in composition to

interstitial fluid

54

A cross-match test is performed between donor blood and recipient blood, even though the ABO and Rh blood types match between the two because

here are many more surface antigens on red blood cells other than A, B and Rh.

55

A bruise appears as a greenish spot in the skin because

the heme group in the hemoglobin has broken down into biliverdin.

56

The enzyme that can digest fibrin and dissolve a clot is

Plasminogen

57

________ are large phagocytic white cells that spend most of their time outside the blood as fixed and free phagocytic cells.

Monocytes

58

Which organ secretes most of the plasma proteins?

Liver

59

A small white blood cell with a large round nucleus would be a

lymphocyte (monocyte is a large cell)

60

Most of the iron that is removed from degraded hemoglobin is

recycled to the red bone marrow.

61

How would removal of calcium ions from a blood sample affect coagulation?

Coagulation would be prevented (needed in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways)

62

The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if

a gene for adult hemoglobin is abnormal

63

The primary reason males have a higher hematocrit than females is because

Males have androgens.

64

Which feature of WBCs makes them particularly important in tissue injury?

They can squeeze out through blood vessel walls into tissues.

65

Surgical removal of the stomach could cause

pernicious anemia.

66

Reticulocytes complete their development into ________ in the circulation.

erythrocytes

67

The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the

Neutrophils

68

If there is a complete block between the SA node and the AV node, how would the ECG be affected?

The rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of QRS complexes.

69

Calculate the cardiac output of a patient with a heart rate of 100 beats/minute and a stroke volume of 75 ml.

7500 ml/min

70

A patient has an end-diastolic volume of 125 ml. A heart attack has weakened her left ventricle so it can pump a stroke volume of only 40 ml. Calculate her end-systolic volume.

85 ml

71

Positive inotropic drugs such as glucagon and thyroid hormone cause

increased contractility.

72

The heart pumps approximately ________ liters of blood each day.

8,000

73

Which of the following describes what is directly measured by an ECG?

electrical conduction

74

The left ventricle pumps blood to the

systemic circuit, lungs

75

These structures keep the aortic valve cusps from sticking to the wall of the aorta.

...

76

Hypertension increases ________ causing stroke volume to ________.

afterload;decrease

77

Stroke volume depends on all of the following factors except

end-systolic volume

78

At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the ________ vein.

Subclavian

79

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the cerebral arterial circle from the posterior is the ________ artery.

basilar

80

Which of the following contributes to the formation of the popliteal vein?

anterior and posterior tibial and fibular

81

The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called

veins

82

Blood colloid osmotic pressure is produced by

large non-diffusible proteins in blood plasma

83

The most common site of a stroke is the

...

84

The regulation of blood flow by local mechanisms within a capillary bed is called

autoregulation

85

In response to hemorrhage, there is

mobilization of the venous reserve

86

Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial and capillary systems.

reduces; increases

87

The blood vessel that supplies blood to the cerebral arterial circle from the posterior is the ________ artery.

basilar

88

Which of the following is not a cardiovascular modification present during fetal development?

ligamentum arteriosum

89

Arteries that supply the plantar portion of the foot branch from the posterior ________ artery.

tibial

90

The ________ carries nutrient-rich blood into the liver.

hepatic portal vein

91

The smallest arterial branches are called the

precapillary arterioles

92

Blood from the dorsal venous arch is drained by the ________ vein(s).

small saphenous

93

Blood pressure is determined by

estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff

94

The blood vessel that carries blood to the arm and shoulder is the ________ artery.

subclavian

95

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased

parasympathetic stimulation of the heart

96

Distension of the superficial veins caused by weakened valves is termed

varicose veins

97

Elderly individuals are more prone than younger individuals to have all of the following, except

Increased elasticity of vessel walls

98

Which of the following vessels changes diameter most readily to local conditions or SNS stimulation?

arterioles

99

Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?

venules

100

Near the level of vertebra L 4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries.

common iliac

101

What is the primary reason cardiovascular disease affects older women and not younger women?

Older women lack estrogen

102

Which of the following contributes to the formation of the popliteal vein?

anterior and posterior tibial and fibular

103

Multiple arteries joined in order to serve a single capillary network are called

collaterals

104

An important pulse point in the neck on the lateral sides of the trachea is the

brachial

105

The ________ receives blood from the diaphragm.

...

106

All of the following conditions change peripheral resistance by affecting blood viscosity except

atherosclerosis

107

Which of the these blood vessels is not a visceral branch of the thoracic aorta?

3 branches are

Esophageal Arteries
Bronchial Arteries
Pericardial Arteries

108

The ________ valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium.

bicupsid valve (mitral)

109

The bicuspid or mitral valve is located

between the left atrium and left ventricle

110

The amount of blood remaining in the ventricle when the semilunar valve closes is the

end-systolic volume (ESV)

111

The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from

depolarization of the atria

112

The ________ is a remnant of an important fetal blood vessel that once linked the pulmonary and systemic circuits.

ligamentum arteriosum

113

Which of the following are involved in the pulmonary circuit?

right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left atrium

114

The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart.
1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches

The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is

SA node

AV node

AV bundle

bundle branches

Purkinje fibers

115

A slower-than-normal heart rate is called

bradycardia

116

The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the

interatrial septum

117

The superior portion of the heart where major blood vessels enter and exit is the

Base

118

The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow

In one direction only

119

The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation is the

foramen ovale

120

Activation of which kind of receptor causes heart rate to increase?

beta-one receptor

121

The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the

Lungs

122

Positive inotropic drugs such as glucagon and thyroid hormone cause

increased contractility

123

There are ________ pulmonary veins.

4

124

The heart pumps approximately ________ liters of blood each day.

8000

125

The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart. What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?
1. right atrium
2. left atrium
3. right ventricle
4. left ventricle
5. venae cavae
6. aorta
7. pulmonary trunk
8. pulmonary veins

Venae cava

right atrium

right ventricle

pulmonary trunk

pulmonary vein

left atrium

left ventricle

aorta

126

The ________ is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the beginning of systole.

end-diastolic volume

127

Which of the following is occurring during ventricular diastole?

The ventricles are passively filling and atria are contracting

128

Abnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the ________ in an ECG tracing.

QRS complex

129

Considering the left ventricle, why does isovolumetric ventricular contraction occur during ventricular systole?

Aortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve

130

Cardiac output is increased by

Sympathetic stimulation

131

Which of the following statements is true concerning differences between the right and left ventricles?

The efficiency of the right ventricle is increased by the left ventricle because the wall of the left ventricle pushes into the right ventricle.

132

Each IgG has ________ binding sites for attachment to antigenic determinants.

2

133

The movement of phagocytes through the capillary wall is called

diapedesis.

134

________ exists when the immune system does not respond to a particular antigen.

tolerance

135

Various types of macrophages are derived from

Monocytes

136

________ are fixed macrophages found in the liver.

Kupffer cells

137

________ are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.

Peyer's patches

138

Martha had a heart transplant. In order to keep her body from rejecting the transplant she takes

immunosuppressive drugs

139

Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.

Innate

140

Class II MHC molecules are found on which of the following?

macrophages AND dendritic cells.

141

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are the

alveoli

142

The respiratory portion of the respiratory tract includes the

Alveoli

143

The ________ fissure separates the lobes of the left lung.

oblique

144

The laryngeal cartilage which is not composed of hyaline cartilage is the

epiglottis.

145

The ________ is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.

oropharynx

146

Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ________ of its oxygen content.

75%

147

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the

Pharynx

148

The apneustic centers of the pons

...

149

The auditory tubes open into the

Nasopharynx

150

Lymphatic capillaries are not found in

central nervous system, red bone marrow, vascular tissue, or portion of the spleen.

151

If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

T-cells

152

Which of the following is not a lymphocyte?

Monocytes

153

An infection and inflammation of the aggregated lymphatic nodules in the pharynx is called

tonsillitis.

154

CD8 markers are to ________ T cells as CD4 markers are to ________ T cells.

cytoxic; helper

155

The portions of an antigen to which antibodies bind are the

antigenic determinant sites

156

Large lymphatic vessels have a wall structure most similar to which blood vessel?

Veins

157

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

thoracic duct.

158

Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are

IgG

159

Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are

IgM

160

Various types of macrophages are derived from

monocytes

161

Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection except

Complement (body hair, epithelium, secretions, basement membranes)

162

Martha had a heart transplant. In order to keep her body from rejecting the transplant she takes

immunosuppressive drugs

163

Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by

adaptive immunity

164

An accumulation of lymph in a region where lymphatic drainage has been blocked is called

lymphedema

165

An important protein in the activation of the alternative pathway of complement activation is

...

166

Helper T cells do all of the following except

provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.

167

If the disulfide bonds in IgG were broken, how many peptide chains would be set free?

4

168

Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.

cytotoxic T

169

Specialized lymphatic capillaries called lacteals are

necessary for the transport of dietary lipids

170

In passive immunity, the

...

171

Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.

naturally acquired active

172

Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the ________ of the lymphatic nodule.

Germinal Center

173

A substance that provokes an immune response is called an

Antigen

174

During exercise, which of the following contract for active exhalation?

rectus abdominis and internal

175

Which pressure remains negative throughout the respiratory cycle?

Intrapleural

176

JJ is suffering from laryngitis. He will most likely experience which of the following symptoms?

Hoarseness

177

Which of these is not part of the upper respiratory system?

Trachea

178

conchae

divide the nasal cavity into right and left sides.

179

________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.

Tidal volume

180

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?

Primary muscle of inspiration

181

The chloride shift occurs in order to

Transport bicarbonate ions into the blood plasma

182

The pneumotaxic center of the pons

modifies the rate and depth of breathing

183

The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the

oropharynx

184

Alveolar ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the alveoli

185

Henry's law states that

the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.

186

Roughly ________ terminal bronchioles arise from each segmental bronchus.

6500

187

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term bronchiolar smooth muscle?

contraction increases airway resistance

188

A pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that function in sound production are the

Vocal folds

189

A condition that increases lung compliance is

emphysema

190

An important component of the lamina propria in the upper respiratory system is

Mucus glands

191

Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?

minute volume

192

Carbon dioxide and water combine to form

Carbonic acid

193

Prolonged inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.

Apneustic

194

How does the pressure "P4" at label "4" compare to the pressure "P5" at label "5"?

P4 is always lower than P5

195

A SCUBA diver has been deep underwater and suddenly rises to the surface too fast. Why does the diver get decompression sickness?

Pressure decreases to fast and nitrogen gas in the blood forms bubbles.

196

The superior region of the pharynx is called the

Nasopharynx

197

Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is high is

Less than hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is low

198

The entire array of protective mechanisms in the respiratory system is called the

Respiratory defense system

199

G cells of the stomach secrete

gastrin

200

Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in

Swallowing

201

Motility in the small intestines is controlled in part by all of the following except

VIP

202

The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the

Vestibule

203

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is

Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

204

If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably

Lactose

205

________ are also known as canines.

Cuspids

206

The formation of GTP from GDP in the citric acid cycle is an example of

substrate-level phosphorylation

207

Intermediary molecules that accept electrons and transfer them to another molecule are called

coenzymes

208

Lipids

...

209

In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP?

2

210

Lipogenesis is common for organic molecules because the intermediate ________ is formed in most nutrient metabolic processes.

acetyl-CoA

211

The strategy of eating starchy foods for several days before an athletic event is known as

carbohydrate loading.

212

Fatty acids that are necessary for proper health but cannot be synthesized by the body are called ________ fatty acids.

Essential

213

The condition when excessive fluid loss from sweating disrupts thermoregulatory mechanisms is known as

heat exhaustion

214

What is the role of NADH in metabolism?

transport hydrogen atoms to coenzymes in the mitochondrial cristae

215

Obesity is defined as a body weight more than ________ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual.

20

216

The cells of the macula densa, the juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells form the

juxtaglomerular complex

217

The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the

Distal convoluted tubule

218

One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to

Increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex

219

Major calyces are

the large branches of the renal pelvis

220

The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the ________ capillaries.

peritubular

221

Damage to the glomerular filtration membrane allowing proteins into the capsular space would result in all of the following except

a decrease in capsular hydrostatic pressure

222

The process that transports solutes, including many drugs, into the tubular fluid is called

secretion

223

Which of the following is a not a true statement regarding the countercurrent multiplication system?

Osmotic concentration in the nephron loop decreases as fluid flows toward the bottom of the loop

224

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the

Renal pelvis

225

Urine is carried from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the

Urethra

226

The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the

Falciform ligament

227

The oral cavity is also known as the ________ cavity.

Buccal

228

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is

Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

229

A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following except in the

stomach

230

Bile is stored in the

Gallbladder

231

Match the gastric phase on the left (1-3) with the correct description on the right (4-6):

1. intestinal phase4. prepares stomach for arrival of food2. gastric phase5. stomach empties and decreases secretions3. cephalic phase6. stomach secretes juice and mixes food into chyme

...

232

The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the

Body

233

Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?

Large Intestine

234

The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the

Gingiva

235

Circular folds are

...

236

Which of the following is true regarding the production of intestinal juice?

Local reflects and parasympathetic stimulation increase the production of intestinal juice

237

A surgical procedure to promote rapid weight loss is removal of most of the

Jejunum

238

The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.

stratified squamous

239

There are normally a total of ________ permanent teeth.

32

240

The root of a tooth is covered by

Cementum

241

Peyer's patches are characteristic of the

small intestine

242

Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?

manufacturing blood cells

243

Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from

parasympathetic stimulation

244

Leptin is to satiety as ________ is to hunger.

insulin

245

All of the following are true of beta-oxidation except that

lipids are converted into glycogen molecules.

246

The study of the flow of energy and its transformations is called

energetics

247

The element that is necessary for the proper function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase is

Zinc

248

The citric acid cycle occurs in the

...

249

A high uric acid level (above 7.4 mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as

Gout

250

An ion that is a necessary component of high-energy compounds and nucleic acids and a structural component of bone is the ________ ion.

Phosphate

251

The chemical equation that correctly summarizes the overall reaction in oxidative phosphorylation is

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O.

252

All of the following occur when the temperature of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus drops below its thermostat setting except

blood flow to the skin increases.

253

In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP?

2

254

Fatty acids and many amino acids cannot be used for ________ because their catabolic pathways produce acetyl-CoA.

gluconeogenesis

255

Major calyces are

...

256

Prolonged aldosterone stimulation of the distal convoluted tubule may result in

hypokalemia

257

Urine is carried from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the

urethra

258

The proximal convoluted tubule cells are

cuboidal cells with microvilli.

259

Calculate filtration pressure (FP) in a nephron with a glomerular hydrostatic pressure of 55 mm Hg, a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg, and a capsular hydrostatic pressure of 15 mm Hg.

FP=15mmHg

260

A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to all of the following except

All are correct

261

The cells of the macula densa, the juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells form the

juxtaglomerular complex

262

Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium

Streptococcus.

263

The ________ is a capillary bed that parallels the nephron loop (loop of Henle).

vasa recta

264

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the

renal pelvis

265

An important structure for blood pressure regulation is the

Juxtaglomenlar complex

266

A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis.

absence of ADH.

267

The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney. In what order does blood pass through these vessels starting at the renal artery?
1.afferent arteriole2.arcuate artery3.interlobar artery4.segmental artery5.glomerulus6.cortical radiate artery7.efferent arteriole8.peritubular capillary

4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8

268

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the

Renal corpuscle

269

The inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is

renal failure

270

Glomerular blood flow is unique because it flows

From arteriole to capillary bed to arteriole

271

The concentration at which all of the carriers in renal tubules for a given substance are saturated is the

...

272

Functions of the urinary system include all of the following except

regulating body temperature

273

The principal ions in extracellular fluid are sodium, chloride, and

sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate

274

Which of the following statements regarding fluid and electrolyte balance is true?

water and electrolytes occur in compartments in which the composition of fluid varies

275

A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of

chronic respiratory acidosis.

276

The two major subdivisions of the ECF are the

interstitial fluid and plasma

277

Amino acids in solution contain both a negative and positive charge and thus are termed a(n)

Zwitterions

278

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone

parathyroid hormone

279

The normal pH range for ECF is

7.35-7.45

280

When pure water is consumed,

osmolarities of the two-fluid

281

When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the kidneys

kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions AND kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions

282

The principal cation in intracellular fluid is

potassium

283

The vulva includes all of the following except the

Vagina

284

The space bounded by the labia minora is the

Vestibule

285

Which of the following statements concerning the vagina is false?

It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

286

The portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is called the

Cervix

287

The delicate layer of serous membrane that covers the testis is called the

tunica vaginalis

288

The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the

aerola

289

The spermatic cord is

a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis

290

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of the reproductive cancers because it

is usually not diagnosed early

291

The hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis in males is

FSH

292

During gastrulation,

two layered embryo (epiblast and hypoblast) is converted into 3 primary embryonic germ layers

293

The ________ is formed by the allantois, blood vessels, and yolk sac.

Umbilical cord

294

The stage of labor during which the fetus emerges from the vagina is called the ________ stage.

Expulsion

295

If fertilization occurs, the ________ is maintained because the embryo secretes ________.

corpus luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin

296

If an individual carries two different alleles for the same trait, the individual is ________ for the trait.

heterozygous

297

Which of the following places the stages of labor in the correct order?

Dilation, Expulsion,

298

In ________, implantation occurs somewhere other than in the uterus.

ectopic pregnancy

299

After fertilization, the first cell division is completed

more than a day later 32 hours

300

The clear liquid secreted by the mammary glands before milk production begins is called

Colostrum

301

The placenta is a source of all of the following hormones, except

hCG
relaxin
placental lactogen
progesterone

302

The uterine epithelium is broken down by which structure of the blastocyst?

syncytiotrophoblast

303

How many chromosomes do human somatic cells contain?

46

304

How many chromosomes do human gametes contain?

23

305

Oxygenated blood from the placenta returns to the fetus in the

umbilical vein

306

The primary nutrient source for early embryonic development that later becomes an important site for blood formation is the

Yolk sac

307

The cell that directly results from the fusion of a secondary oocyte and a single sperm is called a(n)

zygote.

308

The first stage of labor is the ________ stage.

Dilation

309

The ________ is the portion of the endometrium not in contact with the chorion.

parietal decidua

310

During gestation, contraction of the myometrium is inhibited by ________, produced by the corpus luteum.

progesterone

311

The uterine epithelium is broken down by the enzyme,

hyaluronidase.

312

The ________ is formed by the allantois, blood vessels, and yolk sac.

umbilical cord

313

The space bounded by the labia minora is the

Vestibule

314

The ________ of a sperm contains the enzymes essential for fertilization.

acrosome

315

The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the

Penis

316

Which of the following statements about oogenesis is false?

The polar body is the egg cell which is then fertilized by the sperm cell.

317

Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the external urethral orifice.
1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. epididymis

4,1,3,2

318

The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the

Foreskin

319

Semen contains all of the following except

spermatogonia

320

Why are inguinal hernias generally associated with males?

Males have a canal through the abdominal wall that the testes move through, and it often does not close up properly

321

Contraction of the dartos muscle

tightens the scrotal sac.

322

In a 28 day cycle, ovulation typically occurs around day

Day 14

323

The pocket formed between the uterus and the posterior wall of the bladder is the

Rectourterine Pouch

324

Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?

infundibulum

325

Which of the following statements concerning the vagina is False

It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

326

Painful menstruation is called

Dysmenorrhea

327

The subsidence of an erection after ejaculation is known as

Detumescence

328

The main portion of the uterus is called the corpus or

Body

329

The portion of the urethra that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm is the

Membranous urethra

330

The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following except

secrete testosterone.

331

The ________ ligaments extend from the base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis.

Lateral

332

The round ligaments extend from the

lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia

333

The role of inhibin in male reproduction is to

...

334

The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by meiosis I are called

secondary spermatocytes

335

The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the

Uterus

336

The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

meiosis

337

Which hormone affects the osmolarity of blood?

Antidiuretic hormone

338

Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called

electrolytes

339

Which of the following statements is false regarding fluid and electrolyte balance?

...

340

Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the

capillaries

341

All of the following are examples of compensatory mechanisms that would occur as a result of metabolic acidosis except

kidneys retain H+.

342

A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop

metabolic acidosis.

343

Which hormone does&nbsp;&nbsp;<span>not</span>&nbsp;play a role in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance?

...

344

The typical value of water losses and gains each day is

2500 mL

345

Amino acids in solution contain both a negative and positive charge and thus are termed a(n)

zwitterion

346

A(n) ________ acid is an acid that can leave solution and enter the atmosphere.

volatile

347

Water molecules move across cells by

osmosis

348

A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of

chronic respiratory acidosis

349

A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)

buffer