respiratory system

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1

1-Which is not a function of the respiratory system?
A. Sound reception
B. Gas exchange
C. Odor detection
D. Air passage

A

2

2-The main function of serous fluid is to:
A. lubricate and reduce friction between pleural membranes around the lung.
B. improve adhesion of the lungs to the thoracic wall.
C. facilitate the diffusion of oxygen across the respiratory membrane.

A

3

3-Foreign particles that are not filtered out by the respiratory epithelium are:
A. dissolved by enzymes in the alveoli.
B. coughed up during normal daily activities.
C. collected by lymph nodes.
D. carried away in blood.
E. stored in nearby pulmonary alcoves

C

4

4-The lungs remain inflated because:
A. intrapulmonary pressure is less than intrapleural pressure.
B. intrapleural pressure is less than intrapulmonary pressure.
C. intrapleural pressure is exactly equal to intrapulmonary pressure.
D. intrapleural pressure is exactly equal to atmospheric pressure.

B

5

5-Organize the items listed into the proper sequence of events for gas exchange.
a: O2 is transported to cells by circulatory system.
b: O2 is drawn into the lungs during inhalation.
c: Cells use O2 and generate CO2.
d: CO2 is exhaled.
e: The circulatory system transports CO2 to the lungs.
A. a, b, c, d, e
B. b, a, c, d, e
C. b, a, c, e, d
D. c, e, d, a, b
E. e, d, c, b, a

C

6

6-Which answer places the following events in proper order for pulmonary ventilation?
a) Thoracic cavity volume changes.
b) Brainstem nuclei stimulate skeletal muscles to contract.
c) Air flows down its pressure gradient.
d) Dimensional changes in the thorax lead to pressure changes within the lung.
A. b, a, d, c
B. d, c, b, a
C. b, d, c, a
D. a, c, d, b
E. c, a, d, b

A

7

7-According to Boyle's law, the pressure of a gas _________ if the volume of its container increases.
A. increases
B. decreases
C. remains the same

B

8

8-The reason air flows out of the body during expiration is that during that time:
A. intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
B. intrapleural pressure is greater than intrapulmonary pressure.
C. atmospheric pressure is greater than intrapulmonary pressure.
D. intrapleural pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.

A

9

9-The involuntary, rhythmic activities that deliver and remove respiratory gases are regulated in the:
A. brainstem.
B. midbrain.
C. cerebellum.
D. cerebral nuclei.
E. occipital lobe of the brain.

A

10

10-At rest, a normal person breathes about _____ times per minute.
A. 8
B. 12
C. 26
D. 32
E. 50

B

11

11-Also known as the pneumotaxic center, this area allows for smooth transitions between inspiration and
expiration.
A. Dorsal respiratory group
B. Ventral respiratory group
C. Pontine respiratory center
D. Medullary respiratory center
E. Carotid body

C

12

12-When central chemoreceptors detect a drop in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid:
A. medullary respiratory centers trigger an increase in rate and depth of breathing.
B. medullary respiratory centers trigger a decrease in rate and depth of breathing.
C. pontine respiratory centers trigger a decrease in rate and depth of breathing.
D. the vagus and phrenic nerves stimulate decreased production of the catalyst carbonic anhydrase.

A

13

13-The carotid bodies contain _________ chemoreceptors that respond to changes in
________________.
A. peripheral; blood concentrations of H+ and O2
B. central; blood concentrations of H+, but not CO2 and O2
C. peripheral; cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of H+
D. central; cerebrospinal concentrations of CO2
E. peripheral; concentrations of carbon, dust, and pollution in the lungs

A

14

14-Breathing muscles such as the diaphragm are controlled by neurons of the _________ nervous system.
A. somatic
B. autonomic
C. enteric

A

15

15-Which type of receptor initiates the inhalation reflex (or Hering-Breuer) reflex?
A. Central chemoreceptors
B. Baroreceptors
C. Peripheral chemoreceptors
D. Proprioceptors

B

16

16-Following an automobile accident, a broken rib penetrates into the pleural cavity causing air to
accumulate in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This condition is known as a:
A. pneumothorax.
B. tension hemothorax.
C. hemothorax.
D. cystic fibrosis.

B

17

17-Airflow is ________ related to the pressure gradient and __________ related to resistance.
A. directly, directly
B. directly, inversely
C. inversely, inversely
D. inversely, directly

B

18

18-Histamine release results in increased airway resistance and decreased airflow

TRUE

FALSE

TRUE

19

19-If all else remains equal, an increase in the difference between atmospheric and alveolar pressure
results in an increase in airflow.
TRUE
FALSE

TRUE

20

20-Pulmonary fibrosis:
A. decreases elasticity, thereby increasing resistance and decreasing airflow.
B. increases elasticity, thereby increasing resistance and decreasing airflow.
C. decreases elasticity, thereby decreasing both resistance and airflow.
D. increases elasticity, thereby decreasing resistance and increasing airflow.

A

21

21-During expiration, relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals:
A. increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.
B. increases the pressure in the thoracic cavity.
C. expands the rib cage.
D. flattens the floor of the thoracic cavity.
E. stimulates the phrenic nerve.

B

22

22-wo individuals of the same size (same dead space) have a pulmonary ventilation rate of 6 L/min,
but one is breathing 10 breaths/min and the other is breathing 15 breaths/min. How do their alveolar
ventilation rates compare?
A. The slower breather has a greater alveolar ventilation rate.
B. The faster breather has a greater alveolar ventilation rate.
C. Their alveolar ventilation rates are equivalent.

A

23

23-The amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inspiration is the:
A. inspiratory reserve volume.
B. inspiratory capacity.
C. residual volume.
D. functional residual capacity

A

24

24-Airway obstruction can lead to hypoventilation, which can cause:
A. hypoxia and respiratory acidosis.
B. hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis.
C. hypocapnia and hyperpnea.
D. hypoxia and respiratory alkalosis.
E. hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis

A

25

25-What changes in the blood levels of respiratory gases result from hyperventilation?
A. Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels rise.
B. Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels fall.
C. Oxygen levels rise and carbon dioxide levels fall.
D. Oxygen levels do not change but carbon dioxide levels fall.

D

26

26-When someone begins to hyperventilate the increased movements of their respiratory muscles
________ venous return of blood to the heart.
A. increase
B. decrease

A

27

27-When someone exercises vigorously, their breathing is described as demonstrating:
A. hyperpnea, involving deeper but not faster breathing.
B. hyperventilation, involving both deeper and faster breathing.
C. bradypnea, involving deeper and slower breathing.
D. hypopnea, involving shallower but faster breathing.

A

28

28- By following Boyle’s law, air flows from a region of lower pressure (the atmosphere) into a region of
higher pressure within the lungs

TRUE

FALSE

FALSE

29

29-About 70% of the CO2 that diffuses into systemic capillaries:
A. directly dissolves in the plasma.
B. combines with water to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates to bicarbonate and
hydrogen ions.
C. binds to hemoglobin.
D. forms carbonic anhydrase, which combines carbonic acid and water to solubilize the CO2.

B

30

30-Approximately what percent of the oxygen is blood is transported by the hemoglobin of erythrocytes?
A. 33%
B. 50%
C. 66%
D. 75%
E. 98%

E

31

31-Which statement accurately describes alveolar and systemic gas exchanges?
A. In both alveolar and systemic gas exchange, oxygen diffuses out of the blood.
B. In both alveolar and systemic gas exchange, oxygen diffuses toward the blood.
C. In alveolar gas exchange oxygen diffuses into the blood, but in systemic gas exchange it diffuses
out of the blood.
D. In alveolar gas exchange oxygen diffuses out of the blood, but in systemic gas exchange it diffuses
into the blood

C

32

32-The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and blood in the lungs is
called:
A. ventilation.
B. systemic respiration.
C. internal respiration.
D. external respiration.
E. cellular respiration

D-

33

33-Compared to its partial pressure at sea level, what would be the partial pressure of oxygen at an
altitude with an atmospheric pressure of only 380 mm Hg (recall that sea level atmospheric pressure is
760 mm Hg)?
A. Po2 would be half as much as it would be at sea level.
B. Po2 would be twice as much as it would be at sea level.
C. Po2 would be one fourth as much as it would be at sea level.
D. Po2 would be three quarters as much as it would be at sea level

A

34

34-Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is the greatest amount of air that can be:
A. inspired and then expelled in 1 minute.
B. expired in 1 second.
C. held within the lungs for over 30 seconds.
D. inspired in one breath (regardless of dead space).

A

35

35-Which of the following is NOT part of the filtration membrane?
A. Podocytes
B. Macula densa
C. Basal lamina
D. Capillary endothelial cells

B

36

36-The composition of the filtrate is based primarily on
A. Solubility
B. Polarity
C. Charge
D. Size

D

37

37- Which of the following does NOT normally appear in the filtrate?
A. Water
B. Urea
C. Albumin
D. Glucose

C

38

38-The layer of the filtration membrane that is LEAST permeable is the:
A. Podocytes (visceral layer of capsule)
B. Macula densa
C. Basal lamina
D. Capillary endothelial cells

A

39

39- The filtration fraction averages what percentage of the plasma that enters the glomerulus?
A. 0%
B. 20%
C. 50%
D. 70%

B

40

40-Which of the following does NOT increase renin release?
A. Parasympathetic stimulation
B. Low glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C. Decreased sodium ion levels in plasma
D. Low blood pressure

A

41

41. Angiotensin-I is converted into angiotensin-II in the
A. Kidneys
B. Liver
C. Lungs
D. Stomach

C

42

42- Angiotensin-II does NOT
A. Promote aldosterone release
B. Promote vasodilation of efferent arterioles
C. Promote sodium, chloride, and water reabsorption
D. Promote the sensation of thirst

B

43

43- Aldosterone
A. Is released from the adrenal medulla
B. Acts on the proximal tubule
C. Promotes sodium excretion
D. Increases blood volume if ADH is present

D

44

44. Angiotensin-converting enzyme
A. Converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin-I
B. Stimulates the thirst centers in the hypothalamus
C. Converts angiotensin-I into angiotensin-II
D. Inactivates angiotensin-II

C

45

45-The distal tubule and collecting duct
A. Reabsorb most of remaining water
B. Reabsorb filtered hydrogen ions
C. Reabsorb filtered calcium and magnesium ions
D. Reabsorb filtered uric acid

A