Quiz 2

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created 1 year ago by Julie_Wardia
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1

Congenital Heart Disease

A defect in the heart or a persistence of a fetal structure after birth (patent ductus arteriosus)

2

Cardiac Catheterization

Catheter is inserted through a percutaneous puncture in the femoral vein and guided through the heart using fluoroscopy

3

Cardiac Catheterization

Used for diagnostic, interventional or electrophysiological purposes

4

Ventricular Septal Defect

Abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles (ventricular septum) resulting in increased pulmonary blood flow

5

Tetralogy of Fallout (TOF)

Chronic deoxygenation

6

Pulmonary Stenosis

narrowing of exit from the right ventricle going into the lungs

7

Right Ventricular hypertrophy

where blood is pooling in the right ventricular and sitting there..leading to HF

8

Overriding aorta

scooping up the majority of the blood flow

9

Open heart surgery

Opening up the heart (chest) and using a bypass system

10

Closed heart surgery

use tools to go in and ligation (burn) parts of the hearts

11

Congestive Heart Failure

Inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation to meet the body’s metabolic needs.

12

Digoxin

Slows heart rate, increases cardiac filling time, increases cardiac output- improved myocardial contractility

13

Diuretics

#1 Drug for acute/worsening HF Furosemide (Lasix) (potassium wasting) Furosemide to make the body dried; chlorothiazide (Diuril)

14

Digoxin therapeutic level

1-2

15

Digoxin toxicity level

2+

16

Ace Inhibitors

Reduce afterload by causing vasodilation, resulting in decreased pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance.

17

Cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle (myocardium) which inhibits effective pumping (Pump failure problems)

18

Dilated cardiomyopathy

distended heart muscle (thin muscle kind of like a balloon)

19

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

huge trophy-like (hard and thick) muscle - the deadliest; most kids don’t know they have it til its too late. ASYMPTOMATIC

20

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

rock hard rigged cardiac muscle

21

Heart transplantation

Indications for heart transplant in children is cardiomyopathy and end-stage chronic heart disease; complex congenital heart defects

22

Rheumatic Fever (Acquired Heart Disease)

Inflammatory disease that occurs after pharyngitis caused by Group A ß hemolytic strep (autoimmune response) (in the heart, in the joints, in the connective tissue, and CNS)

23

Kawasacki Syndrome

Acute febrile, systemic vascular inflammatory disorder that affects small and midsize arteries, including the coronary arteries

24

Bradycardia in infants

<80 bpm

25

Bradycardia in children

<60 bpm

26

SVT in children

>180 bpm

27

Dyslipidemia

Abnormal concentration of one of more lipids

28

Systemic HTN

Most commonly secondary to a structural abnormality of underlying process

Renal, cardiovascular, endocrine and neurological

29

Shock

Acute, complex state of circulatory dysfunction resulting in failure to deliver sufficient oxygen and other nutrients to cells and tissue.

30

Body fluid

body water that has solutes dissolved in it.

31

Electrolytes

Charged particles. Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, Pi

32

Intracellular fluid

inside the cell

33

Extracellular fluid

outside the cell. Inside vascular bed, inside veins, bloods, fluids, plasma. Includes interstitial fluid and intravascular fluid

34

Buffer

compound that binds hydrogen to keep ranges within normal limits

35

Diffusion

particles move from a location of greater to less concentration

36

Active transport

particles move against the concentration, can move from lesser to greater concentration. Requires metabolic energy

37

Sensible fluid loss

measurable loss- urine, wound drainage

38

Insensible fluid loss

immeasurable loss- skin and breathing, high RR = high insensible loss

39

Filtration

movement between intravascular and interstitial compartments

40

Osmosis

movement into and out of cells

41

Extracellular fluid-volume deficit

Dehydration – occurs when fluid loss is not balanced by intake, and the loss of water and sodium are in proportion

42

Interstitial fluid-volume excess

Edema

43

Extracellular fluid

volume excess = sudden weight gain; gain of 0.5kg (1 lb) in a day is related to fluid and represents 500 mL of saline.

44

Water Balance

Normally the amount of water ingested closely equals the amount of urine excreted in a 24 hour period.

45

ADH

released from posterior pituitary promotes water retention

46

Aldosterone

regulates salt and water balance

47

Renin-angiotensin

vasoconstrictor

48

1 ml =

1 cc

49

Dehydration

volume depletion - Serious medical emergency in pediatric patients

Total output of fluid exceeds the total intake

50

Mild dehydration

Up to 5% of body weight

51

Moderate dehydration

6-9% of body weight

52

Severe dehydration

10% or more of body weight

53

Isotonic

dehydration occurs in which electrolyte and water are in balanced proportions (no water being pushed into cell or out of cell) It’s perfect.

54

Hypotonic

electrolyte deficit exceeds the water deficit; fat cell; water is being attracted into the cell; potassium is being pushed into the cell. Sodium going outside the cell.

55

Hypertonic

water loss in excess of electrolyte loss; caused by a proportionately larger loss of water or a larger intake of electrolytes; Skinny cell

56

hypotonic

Sodium is below normal less than 130. Sodium loss is greater than water loss.

57

hypertonic

Sodium above normal levels; above 150. Water loss is greater than Sodium loss.

58

Disturbances of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Water intoxication (water overload)

Water intake in excess of output

59

Hypernatremia (sodium excess)

>146

60

Hyponatremia (sodium depletion)

<134-135

61

Hyperkalemia

>5.5 in children; >5.7 in newborns

62

Hypokalemia

<3.7 in children (<3.2 infants)

63

Hypercalcemia

>2.7 in infants and children

64

Hypocalcemia

<2.1 in infants and children

65

Hypermagnesemia

>2.4

66

Hypomagnesemia

<1.6

67

Acid-base imbalance

based on hydrogen ion concentration

68

Metabolic disturbances of acid-base balance

alterations in the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO₃¯)

69

Respiratory disturbances of acid-base balance

changes in carbonic acid concentration (H₂CO₃)

70

Compensated

when a secondary change is successful in preventing a distortion of the acid-base balance and the ph is restored to normal

71

Uncompensated

no compensatory effect and the ph remains uncorrected

72

Respiratory Acidosis

Inadequate or diminished pulmonary ventilation, Accumulation of carbon dioxide in blood

73

Respiratory Alkalosis

Primary increase in the rate and depth of pulmonary ventilation

Unusually large amounts of CO₂ is being exhaled

74

Metabolic Acidosis

Gain of strong acid and the reduction of bicarb ( Excess of any acid other than carbonic acid in the blood)

75

Metabolic Alkalosis

Reduction of hydrogen ion concentration and an excess of bicarbonate, too few metabolic acids in the blood