Developmental Psychology Chapters 1 & 2 - Butler University

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1

study of behavior, study of the mind, responses to the environment, mind and mental processes

Psychology

2

must be falsifiable, empiricism, systematic, no supernatural causes - assumption, but not tested. has to be observable.

Science

3

Development involves systematic continuities and changes from conception to death in three domains:

1. Physical Development
2. Cognitive Development
3. Social Development

4

Periods of the lifespan:

- prenatal, infancy
- childhood
- adolescence
- adulthood

5

status, roles, priveleges and responsibilities based on age group

age grades

6

expectations based on age grades

age norms

7

Founder of Psychology. Had first laboratory in 1879.

Willhelm Wundt

8

the physical changes that occur from conception to maturity

growth

9

deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death

biological aging

10

refers to a range of physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism.

aging

11

a person's sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms.

social clock

12

the transitional period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty and ends when the individual has acquired adult competencies and responsibilities.

adolescence

13

extending from about 18-29, when young people are between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood

emerging adulthood

14

- microsystem
- mesosystem
- exosystem
- macrosystem

Brofenbrenner's Model

15

a set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena

theory

16

- psychoanalytic
- learning
- cognitive development
- systems theory

four major theoretical viewpoints

17

_______________ believed children were inherently selfish and bad. believed it was society's job to change them.

Thomas Hobbes

18

_______________ believed children were innately good and born with an inactive understanding of right and wrong.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

19

______________ believed children were "blank slates."

John Locke

20

focuses on the extent to which human beings are active in creating and influencing their own environments and, in the process, in producing their own development, or are passively shaped by forces beyond their control.

activity - passivity

21

focuses on whether the changes people undergo over the lifespan are gradual or abrupt.

continuity - discontinuity

22

the extent to which developmental changes are common to all humans (universal) or different across cultures, subcultures, task contexts, and individuals (context specific).

universality - context specifity

23

focused on the development and dynamics of the personality, challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development by proposing that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in their family.

Psychoanalytic Theory

24

the impulsive, irrational and selfish part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts

id

25

the rational side of the individual that tries to find realistic ways of gratifying the instincts

ego

26

the individual's internalized moral standards

superego

27

- oral
- anal
- phallic
- latent
- genital

five psychosexual stages

28

the conflict that 4-6 year old boys experience when they develop an incestuous desire for their mothers and a jealous and hostile rivalry with their fathers.

Oedipus Complex

29

said to desire her father, view her mother as a rival, and ultimately resolve her conflicts by identifying with her mother.

Electra Complex

30

involves taking on or internalizing the attitudes and behaviors of another person

identification

31

removing unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness

repression

32

retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage of development

regression

33

seeing in others the motives we fear we possess

projection

34

expressing motives that are just the opposite of one's real motives

reaction formation

35

Erikson believed that humans everywhere experience ______ major psycosocial stages, or conflicts, during their lives.

eight

36

a simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicits a response

classical conditioning

37

an unlearned stimulus

unconditioned stimulus

38

an unlearned response

unconditioned response

39

a learned stimulus

conditioned stimuus

40

a learned response

conditioned response

41

a learner's behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces.

operant conditioning

42

a desirable event that when introduced following a behavior, makes that behavior more probable

positive reinforcement

43

NOT a form of punishment, occurs when a behavioral tendency is strengthened because something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation or is escaped or avoided, after the behavior occurs.

negative reinforcement

44

occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is applied or added to the situation following a behavior.

positive punishment

45

occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following the behavior

negative punishment

46

both positive and negative reinforcement __________ the likelihood the event will repeat

decrease

47

behavior that is ignored, or no longer reinforced, tends to become less frequent through the process

extinction