Developmental Psychology Chapters 1 & 2 - Butler University
study of behavior, study of the mind, responses to the environment, mind and mental processes
must be falsifiable, empiricism, systematic, no supernatural causes - assumption, but not tested. has to be observable.
Development involves systematic continuities and changes from conception to death in three domains:
1. Physical Development
2. Cognitive Development
3. Social Development
Periods of the lifespan:
- prenatal, infancy
status, roles, priveleges and responsibilities based on age group
expectations based on age grades
Founder of Psychology. Had first laboratory in 1879.
the physical changes that occur from conception to maturity
deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death
refers to a range of physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism.
a person's sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms.
the transitional period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty and ends when the individual has acquired adult competencies and responsibilities.
extending from about 18-29, when young people are between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood
a set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena
- cognitive development
- systems theory
four major theoretical viewpoints
_______________ believed children were inherently selfish and bad. believed it was society's job to change them.
_______________ believed children were innately good and born with an inactive understanding of right and wrong.
______________ believed children were "blank slates."
focuses on the extent to which human beings are active in creating and influencing their own environments and, in the process, in producing their own development, or are passively shaped by forces beyond their control.
activity - passivity
focuses on whether the changes people undergo over the lifespan are gradual or abrupt.
continuity - discontinuity
the extent to which developmental changes are common to all humans (universal) or different across cultures, subcultures, task contexts, and individuals (context specific).
universality - context specifity
focused on the development and dynamics of the personality, challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development by proposing that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in their family.
the impulsive, irrational and selfish part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts
the rational side of the individual that tries to find realistic ways of gratifying the instincts
the individual's internalized moral standards
five psychosexual stages
the conflict that 4-6 year old boys experience when they develop an incestuous desire for their mothers and a jealous and hostile rivalry with their fathers.
said to desire her father, view her mother as a rival, and ultimately resolve her conflicts by identifying with her mother.
involves taking on or internalizing the attitudes and behaviors of another person
removing unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness
retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage of development
seeing in others the motives we fear we possess
expressing motives that are just the opposite of one's real motives
Erikson believed that humans everywhere experience ______ major psycosocial stages, or conflicts, during their lives.
a simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicits a response
an unlearned stimulus
an unlearned response
a learned stimulus
a learned response
a learner's behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces.
a desirable event that when introduced following a behavior, makes that behavior more probable
NOT a form of punishment, occurs when a behavioral tendency is strengthened because something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation or is escaped or avoided, after the behavior occurs.
occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is applied or added to the situation following a behavior.
occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following the behavior
both positive and negative reinforcement __________ the likelihood the event will repeat
behavior that is ignored, or no longer reinforced, tends to become less frequent through the process