Sociology Final

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1

The ___ perspective examines the relationships between different social institutions

functionalist

2

Sociology is the systematic study of:
____________ and _______________.

human society and social interaction

3

Acc. to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination refers to the ability to:

recognize the relationship between _________ troubles and ________ issues

personal, public

4

_____________ perspectives are based on the assumption that groups are engaged in a continuous POWER struggle for control of scarce resources

Conflict

5

What sociological perspective would focus on the fact that our thoughts and behaviors are shaped by our social interactions with others?

Symbolic interactionist

6

_________________ perspectives are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system

Functionalist

7

____________ is a set of logically interrelated statements that attempt to describe, explain, and predict social events

Theory

8

______________ suggested that societies are built upon social facts

Emile Durkheim

9

______________ perspective focuses on inequalities between groups based on factors like social class, race, ethnicity, and gender

Conflict

10

Goffman's dramaturgical analysis represents the ____________ perspective

Symbolic interactionist

11

______________ is the capacity to disrupt, discontinue, or reform the command of social structures

Agency

12

______________ was the first empirical sociologist (based on observation)

Emile Durkheim

13

______________ condition in which standards, rules, routines, values, and norms that typically guide human behavior lose their command

Anomie

14

Functionalist (Structural), Conflict, Symbolic Interactionist are the 3 main _______________________.

sociological perspectives

15

The ____________________ perspective, by Charles Cooley, suggests that the self is a product of the way we perceive others reacting to us.

Looking-glass

16

George Mead believed that the self-concept is determined by the various _________ throughout the life course

statues

17

George Mead's ______ is the creative, aspirational. and expressive self- one's uniqueness or own "style" within the statuses they hold.

"I"

18

The ______ is the aspect of the self that conforms to the norms and expectations of

"me"

19

_____________ is the obvious or intended purpose of something

Manifest

20

Karl Marx's _____________ - viewed society through the lens of an ongoing struggle between capitalists and the proletariat (working class)

Conflict Theory

21

Karl’s criticism of functional theory is _____________________.

Facade of legitimacy

22

________________________ is concerned with everyday encounters and how people communicate and interpret each other’s interests, values, and goals

Symbolic Interactionist Theory

23

______________ is a trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions

Variable

24

_________________ is…. shared (collective property) , adaptive, cumulative, fluid (it is not static, it can change), material (ex: food, movies, clothing) & nonmaterial (ex: behavior of people, values, attitudes)

Culture

25

____________ is the way of life of a group of people; the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material object, and behavior in given society

Culture

26

____________ are what is important to someone

Values

27

The concept of _______ refers to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others.

mores

28

Informal norms are referred as called _____________.

Folkways

29

________________ is the act of judging another culture based on the values and standards of one's own culture – especially regarding language, behavior, customs, and religion.

Ethnocentrism

30

_________________ is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another

Cultural relativism

31

Being bilingual is an example of __________________, cultural assets that achieve social mobility

Cultural Capital

32

________________ is the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group of people to another.

Cultural diffusion

33

__________________ is the adoption of elements of one culture by members of another culture

Cultural Appropriation

34

________________ are ideas people are taught to accept

Dominant ideologies

35

A _____________ is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles

subculture

36

A _________________ is a movement based around a shared identity that directly rejects or opposes mainstream cultural values.

counterculture

37

________________ to teach culture, the process of learning the ways of life in society, the lifelong process by which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a given culture

Socialization

38

________________ is person or group to look to make some type of judgement on, not necessarily role models

Reference group

39

______________________ preparing us for what is expected to happen ex: private schools prepare a student for different colleges than public school

Anticipatory socialization

40

Standing up in the train so others can sit down is an example of ______________________. (non verbal and indirect inattention, involves awareness of the presence of others)

Civil inattention/ Unfocused interaction

41

________________ is verbal and direct, this is also known as an Encounter. Individuals here are engaged in a common activity or conversation

Focused Interaction

42

____________________ the study of how people interpret what others say and do in the course of everyday interactions

Ethnomethodology

43

________________ is when people lack resources to satisfy essential needs (food, shelter, water)

Absolute poverty

44

________________ is when lacking the resources that are common within a particular setting or social group

Relative poverty

45

______________ is preconceived opinions or attitudes about an entire group of people, often an ethnic or racial minority

Prejudice

46

____________ is a belief that one race is supreme and all others are interior.

Racism

47

_________________ is unequal treatment of an entire group of people

Discrimination

48

_______________ is when minority groups learn the ways of the majority group

Assimilation

49

_____________ is when each group retains it’s own culture and respects (or tolerates) other groups enough to let them do the same (E.g. a salad bowl)

Pluralism

50

________________ is the exaggeration of the traits and behaviors believed to be characteristic of males

Hypermasculinity (or “toxic” masculinity)

51

_____________ is human constructed category of individuals with similar physical features that have come to be socially significant

Race

52

_____________ is a human constructed social identity related and/or distinct cultural practices (e.g. language, belief systems, religion)

Ethnicity

53

_____________ based on two assumptions: rules are socially constructed & rules are not enforced uniformly or consistently

(You are what they say you are)

Labeling theory

54

_______________ is the theory of structural strain take into consideration two elements of social structure:
the goals of society defines as valuable & the culturally legitimate means to achieve those valued goals

Anomie Theory

55

The key assumption of _______________ is criminal behavior is learned

Differential Association theory

56

To operationalize a variable is to _________________

decide how to measure it