Ch:22 Lymphatic System- Notes

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1

Fluid balance, fat absorption, and defense are functions of the ___________________.

lymphatic system

2

Lymphatic system helps to absorb fat and other substances from the digestive system with the help of specialized vessels called ______________

lacteals.

3

______________ is a fluid similar to plasma or interstitial fluid but does not have plasma proteins.

Lymph

4

Lymphatic capillaries have _________________ which are loosely attached and are therefore more permeable.

endothelial cells

5

Lymph capillaries merge to form _____________ which have valves and are similar in structure to veins.

lymphatic vessels

6

Lymph moves through the vessels with the help of milking action carried out by the _________________ and pressure changes created by the respiration

skeletal muscles

7

____________ is bean-shaped clusters of B and T cells found at intervals along the length of the vessels

Lymph nodes

8

As lymphatic vessels exit from lymph nodes, they merge and form _____________.

lymph trunks

9

__________________ is the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system.

      • Receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, and chest, the left upper extremity, and the entire body below the ribs.
      • Drains lymph into venous blood at junction of the left subclavian vein and internal jugular vein.

Thoracic duct

10

_________________ drains right side head, arm and chest. Empties into venous system at junction of right subclavian vein and right jugular vein.

Right lymphatic duct

11

_________________ make up 20–30% of circulating leukocytes
Most are stored, not circulating

Lymphocytes

12

_____________ make up 80% of circulating lymphocytes.

T Cells

13

________________ attack cells infected by viruses. Produce cell-mediated immunity

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells

14

_______________ is formed in response to foreign substance. Remain in body to give “immunity”

Memory T cells TM:

15

______________ stimulate function of T cells and B cells

Helper T (TH) cells:

16

________________ inhibit function of T cells and B cells

Suppressor T (TS) cells:

17

_______________ Make up 10–15% of circulating lymphocytes

B cells

18

___________ differentiate (change) into plasma cells which produce and secrete antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins).

B cell

19

_______________ responsible for immunological surveillance and attack foreign cells, virus-infected cells, and cancer cells

Natural Killer

20

The spleen, lymph nodes and nodules are __________________________ (sites where the mature lymphocytes reside and carry out immune response)

Secondary Lymphatic organs

21

Red bone marrow and thymus gland are ____________________________. (where the lymphocytes originate and mature to become immunocompetent)

Primary Lymphatic organs

22

_____________________ are scattered throughout the lamina propria of mucous membranes lining the GI tract, respiratory airways, urinary tract, and reproductive tract.

Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT):

23

_______________ are aggregates of lymphatic tissue in appendix and small intestines for protection

Peyers patches

24

__________ large groups of nodules in the mucosa of the pharynx. Provide protection against bacteria entering the body through the mouth or nasal cavities.

Tonsils

25

A __________________ capsule surround each lymph node. Capsule extends in the lymph node as trabeculae.

dense connective tissue

26

Outer part of the node is called ____________ which is made up of lymphatic nodules containing lymphocytes and macrophages

cortex

27

Inner medulla is made up of irregular strands of lymphatic tissue called ________________.

medullary cords.

28

Destroys defective RBCs, Detects and responds to foreign substances, Limited reservoir for blood are functions of the __________.

Spleen

29

The spleen is often damaged in abdominal trauma. A _____________ may be required to prevent excessive bleeding.

splenectomy

30

__________ is lymphatic tissue around arteries in the spleen.

White pulp

31

___________ is Lymphatic tissue associated with the veins in spleen

Red pulp

32

The depression on the Spleen where the splenic blood vessels enter and leave is called ________.

hilum

33

______________ Is defined as the ability to resist damage from foreign substances such as microorganisms and harmful chemicals.

Resistance

34

_______________ is lack of resistance.

Susceptibility:

35

__________________ prevent entry, limit the spread of microorganisms or other environmental hazards.

Innate (nonspecific) defense mechanisms

36

Mucous membrane that lines the digestive respiratory and urogenital tract secrete a viscous mucus that prevents entry of potentially harmful microbes is a ________________.

physical barrier

37

In addition many of the secretions like saliva, tears etc. also contain proteins like __________ which digest cell wall of microbes and destroy it.

lysozyme

38

________________ are specialized cells that perform phagocytosis. Phagocytosis takes place in 5 steps chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, and killing.

Phagocytes

39

Neutrophils and monocytes are cells involved in ______________________.

Phagocytosis

40

____________________ Is carried out by natural killer (NK) cells. They attack cancer cells and body cells infected with viruses.

Immunological surveillance

41

_______________ are chemicals released by virus infected cells.

      • They cannot save the infected cell, but they diffuse to neighboring healthy cells, where they stimulate the production of antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication in these cells. Thus an infected cell helps to protect uninfected cells.
      • There are three known types of interferons, alpha, beta, gamma. - are most effective in controlling short term infections, such as cold and influenza.

Inteferons