Intro to European History
A time period during which the Roman Catholic Church moved the papacy to Avignon where various French popes would control the papacy from 1305-1378. The captivity would eventually lead to the GREAT SCHISM in the Roman Catholic Church in which there were 2 popes, and eventually 3.
Hundred Year's War
This was a war between England and France, specifically, the house of Plantagenet and the French house of Valois over who would ultimately rule France when the Capet line of monarchs died out. While the war did not take place all 100 years, it did feature such people as Joan D'Arc and ushered in the Valois as the rulers of France.
Burned at the stake for his beliefs, Jan Huss or Jan Hus was from present day Czechoslovakia or back then Bohemia. Hus questioned the Roman Catholic Church about heirarchy and theology and would eventually be labeled as a heretic and burned for it.
St. Catherine of Siena
Known for her letters to the pope, warning him of of trouble within the church during the Babylonian Captivity, she encouraged Pope Gregory to return the papacy to Rome.
This term refers to the use of regular everyday language. For example, Latin was used for writing the Bible and giving Mass prior to the 1500s. If one were to use English, or German instead, this would be considered using the Vernancular. You might also consider it to be a dialect of the common people.
War of the Roses
Two branches of the English family Plantagenet--the houses of York and Lancaster (think like Harry Potter here, but instead of students, families) would battle it out in this Civil War to see which family would rule England. One house--Lancaster--used a red rose as its symbol, and the other York, used a white--Hence the name. Henry Tudor of the Lancaster family would eventually be victorious and become Henry VII.
John Wycliffe (Wyclif)(Wyclife)