Psychology Test 2 Review Part 1

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Chapter 5 Learning
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1

Learning

A systematic, relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience.

2

Associative learning

Learning that occurs when a organism makes a connection or an association between two events.

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Behaviourism

A theory of learning that focus solely on observable behaviour is discounting the importance of such mental activities as thinking, wishing, and hoping.

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Observational learning

Learning that occurs through observing and imitating others behaviour.

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Classical conditioning

Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquire is the capacity to elicit a similar response.

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What are the two types of conditioning?

Classical and operant.

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Pavlov’s studies was created and done by what psychologist?

Ivan Pavlov

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The Pavlov Study

It is a learning procedure that involves pairing a stimulus with a conditioned response.

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Unconditional stimulus (US)

A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.

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Conditional stimulus (CS)

A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditional stimulus.

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Unconditioned response (UR)

And unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.

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Conditioned response (CR)

The learned response to the condition stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus unconditioned stimulus pairing.

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acquisition

For the initial learning of the connection Between their unconditioned simulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired.

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Generalized (classical condition)

The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original condition stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.

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Discrimination (classical conditioning)

The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others.

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Extension (classical conditioning)

The weakening of the condition response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.

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Counter conditioning

A classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and it’s conditioned response.

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Aversive conditioning

A form of treatment that consist of repeating pairings gof a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus.

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Operant conditioning or (instrumental conditioning)

A form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence.

20
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Edward Thorndike

was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work on comparative psychology and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the scientific foundation for educational psychology.

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Thorndike's law of effect

is a psychology principle on the matter of behavioral conditioning not then formulated as such which states that "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.

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Thorndike's law of effect Ex:

(Puzzle Box). The puzzle box is the laboratory device that E. L. Thorndike invented in order to study instrumental or operant conditioning in cats. Hungry cats were individually placed into a box that could be opened by the animal via a device such as a latch.

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Reinforcement

The process by which a stimulus or an event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.

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Positive reinforcement

The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.

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Negative reinforcement

The removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.

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Avoidance learning

An organisms learning that it can altogether avoid in negative stimulus by making a particular response.

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Primary reinforcer

A reinforcer that is innately satisfying one that does not take any learning on the organisms part to make it pleasurable.

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Secondary reinforcer

A reinforcer that acquires its positive values through an organism experience and secondary reinforcer is learned or conditioned reinforcer.

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Generalization (operant conditioning)

performing a reinforce behavior in a different situation.

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Discrimination (operant conditioning)

Responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.

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Extinction operant conditioning

Decrease in the frequency of behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforced.