Exam 2 A&P 1 Flashcards


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1

___ is the lining of the marrow cavity

endosteum

2

____ are cells that can dissolve the bony matrix

osteoclasts

3

___ are layers of bone matrix

lamellae

4

____ are small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone

canaliculi

5

___ are cells that can build bony matrix

osteoblasts

6

____ : facet

  • vertebrae
  • mandible
  • femur
  • coxal bone
  • occipital bone

vertebrae

7

___ : ramus

  • vertebrae
  • mandible
  • femur
  • coxal bone
  • occipital bone

mandible

8

___ : trochanter

  • vertebrae
  • mandible
  • femur
  • coxal bone
  • occipital bone

femur

9

___ : ischial spine

  • vertebrae
  • mandible
  • femur
  • coxal bone
  • occipital bone

coxal bone

10

___ : foramen

  • vertebrae
  • mandible
  • femur
  • coxal bone
  • occipital bone

occipital bone

11

The structural unit of cancellous bone tissue is called ____.

trabeculae

12

Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?

  • calcitriol
  • calcitonin
  • parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • thyroid hormones

calcitonin

13

PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?

  • calcitriol
  • calcitonin
  • vitamin D
  • thyroid hormones

calcitriol

14

Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)

  • increase osteoblasts on bone
  • increase osteoclasts
  • increase reabsorption of calcium in the kidney

increase osteoblasts on bone

15

Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?

  • calcitriol
  • PTH
  • calcitonin

calcitriol

16

___ is an incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.

  • greenstick
  • comminuted
  • spiral

greenstick

17

___ : bone fragments into many pieces

  • greenstick
  • comminuted
  • spiral

comminuted

18

___: common sports fracture resulting from a twist force

  • greenstick
  • comminuted
  • spiral

spiral

19

Which type of cartilage is NOT properly matched with its function?

  • elastic cartilage; withstand repetitive bending
  • fibrocartilage; withstand pressure and stretch
  • hyaline cartilage; cover the ends of bones
  • skeletal cartilage; reinforce airways

skeletal cartilage; reinforce airways

20

The pubic symphysis connects the two hip bones anteriorly and provides a little movement during childbirth. Choose the most appropriate tissue for this structure that is subjected to both pressure and stretch.

  • hyaline cartilage
  • fibrocartilage
  • elastic cartilage
  • bone

fibrocartilage

21

Which pairing is NOT correct?

  • appendicular skeleton; limb girdles
  • axial skeleton; bones of the limbs
  • appendicular skeleton; used during movement
  • axial skeleton; supports internal organs

axial skeleton; bones of the limbs

22

Spongy bone contains ____

  • trabeculae
  • osseous lamellae
  • lamellar bone
  • osteons

trabeculae

23

Choose the best location for obtaining a red bone marrow sample from a patient.

  • head of humerus
  • hip bone
  • medullary cavity of femur
  • frontal bone

hip bone

24

Select the bone disorder in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones?

  • Paget's disease
  • rickets
  • osteomalacia
  • osteoporosis

osteoporosis

25

At what age do bones reach their peak density?

  • early childhood
  • at birth
  • early adulthood
  • late adulthood

early adulthood

26

Skeletal remains are discovered at an archeological site. X-rays of the femur show evidence of a thin epiphyseal plate. This bone likely belonged to which of the following?

  • 25 year old female
  • 8 year old female
  • 18 year old male
  • 60 year old male

18 year old male

27

Cranial bones develop ________.

  • within osseous membranes
  • from cartilage models
  • from a tendon
  • within fibrous membranes

within fibrous membranes

28

Description of nonaxial movement

  • Flat bones sliding past one another
  • Movement between adjacent carpal bones
  • Rotation of a bone on one axis
  • Flexion at the elbow
  • Vertebral processes gliding past one another
  • Flat bones sliding past one another
  • Movement between adjacent carpal bones
  • Vertebral processes gliding past one another
29

Description of other types of movement

  • Flat bones sliding past one another
  • Movement between adjacent carpal bones
  • Rotation of a bone on one axis
  • Flexion at the elbow
  • Vertebral processes gliding past one another
  • Rotation of a bone on one axis
  • Flexion at the elbow
30

In uniaxial movement at the elbow joint, the movement allowed is ____ and _____

flexion, extension

31

Examples of uniaxial movement permitted at the surfaces of bones can be found at these two articulations, _____ and _____.

distal humerus to proximal ulna ,proximal ulna to radius.

32

The atlas to axis joint would exhibit _____

rotation

33

A cylinder-shaped bone articulating with a trough- shaped bone would exhibit ____ and ____

flexion, extension

34

Which of the following represents a correct statement about multiaxial joints?

  • The shapes of articulating surfaces in the multiaxial joint are a cylindrical bone in a trough.
  • Movement in more than two axes is permitted in a multiaxial joint.
  • The rounded end of the proximal metacarpal fitting into the distal surface of the carpal bone of the wrist is a classic ball-and-socket joint.
  • The ball-and-socket joint permits only one angular motion.

Movement in more than two axes is permitted in a multiaxial joint

35

The Focus Figure of Synovial Joints has examined a number of types of movement and the joints in which they are located. Review the types you have studied, and select a true statement or characteristic of uniaxial movement in a representative joint.

  • A person bends over and his or her vertebral processes move past one another.
  • The dancer's leg is lifted to a ballet bar.
  • A golfer swings at the ball on the tee.
  • A person curls his or her fingers and the phalanges flex at the interphalangeal joints.Submit

A person curls his or her fingers and the phalanges flex at the interphalangeal joints.Submit

36

Which of the following is true about the shoulder joint?

  • Ligaments surround the glenohumeral joint on all sides and strengthen the joint.
  • Many muscles cross the glenohumeral joint and limit the mobility of the joint.
  • The glenohumeral joint is more mobile, making it less stable.
  • The deepness of the glenoid strengthens the joint overall.

The glenohumeral joint is more mobile, making it less stable.

37

An individual with a "double-jointed" thumb can pull it back towards the wrist much farther than normal. What does it mean to be "double-jointed?"

  • the joint capsules and ligaments are more stretchy and loose than normal
  • the additional joint present doubles the range of motion
  • greater than normal production of serous fluid lubricates the joint and extends it
  • articular cartilage at bone ends is replaced with hyaline cartilage

the joint capsules and ligaments are more stretchy and loose than normal

38

Which joint does NOT belong with the others?

  • interphalangeal (toes)
  • wrist
  • ankle
  • elbow

wrist

39

Which functional group has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement?

  • fixators
  • antagonists
  • agonists
  • synergists

agonists

40

Which of the following muscles is named for its origin and insertion?

  • deltoid
  • trapezius
  • sternocleidomastoid
  • gluteus maximus

sternocleidomastoid

41

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

  • circular arrangement of fascicles: describes the deltoid muscle
  • convergent arrangement of fascicles: fan shaped muscle
  • parallel arrangement of fascicles: characteristic of sphincter muscles
  • pennate arrangement of fascicles: spindle-shaped muscle

convergent arrangement of fascicles: fan shaped muscle

42

Most skeletal muscles of the body act in ________.

  • first-class lever systems
  • power lever systems
  • second-class lever systems
  • third-class lever systems

third-class lever systems

43

The major head flexor muscles are the ________.

  • sternocleidomastoid muscles
  • erector spinae muscles
  • pectoralis major muscles
  • scalene muscles

sternocleidomastoid muscles

44

The main forearm extensor is the ________.

  • biceps brachii
  • supinator
  • triceps brachii
  • palmaris longus

triceps brachii

45

The ________ muscles compress the cheeks to help keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth while chewing.

  • temporalis
  • medial pterygoid
  • buccinator
  • masseter

buccinator

46

Which is(are) the most important muscle(s) of inspiration (inhalation)?

  • external intercostals
  • internal intercostals
  • diaphragm
  • rectus abdominis

diaphragm

47

Which of the following is a hamstring muscle?

  • vastus lateralis
  • vastus medialis
  • rectus femoris
  • biceps femoris

biceps femoris

48

Which of the following muscles is innervated by the phrenic nerve?

  • diaphragm
  • internal intercostals
  • sternocleidomastoid muscles
  • external intercostals

diaphragm

49

A reduction in the lateral angle of the glenohumeral joint in relation to the anatomical position would be called __________.

  • extension
  • abduction
  • adduction
  • flexion

adduction

50

Movement of the shoulder laterally away from the body is called __________.

  • flexion
  • extension
  • abduction
  • adduction

abduction

51

The prime mover of hip extension is the __________.

  • gluteus maximus
  • gracilis
  • adductor magnus
  • pectineus

gluteus maximus

52

The tensor fascia latae is involved in hip __________.

  • lateral rotation
  • adduction
  • extension
  • abduction

abduction

53

Muscles that act on the knee joint form most of the mass of the __________.

  • knee
  • thigh
  • calf
  • hip

thigh

54

To allow for flexion, the __________ unlocks the knee joint.

  • biceps femoris
  • popliteus
  • semimembranosus
  • sartorius

popliteus

55

___: Muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle.

  • antagonist
  • fixator
  • agonist
  • synergist

antagonist

56

Muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle.

  • antagonist
  • fixator
  • agonist
  • synergist

fixator

57

Muscle that is primarily responsible for bringing about a particular movement

  • antagonist
  • fixator
  • agonist
  • synergist

agonist

58

muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement.

  • antagonist
  • fixator
  • agonist
  • synergist

synergist

59

muscles are only able to pull, they never push

T/F

true

60

Which of the following is NOT used as a criterion for naming muscles?

  • the locations of the muscle attachments
  • the shape of the muscle
  • the location of the muscle
  • whether the muscle is controlled by the involuntary or voluntary nervous system

whether the muscle is controlled by the involuntary or voluntary nervous system

61

Which is CORRECTLY matched?

  • deltoid: at a right angle to the long axis
  • brevis: long
  • rectus: straight
  • transverse: parallel to the long axis

rectus: straight

62

When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?

  • The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.
  • The muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively.
  • The muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively.
  • The muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively.

The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.

63

The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean?

  • The muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint.
  • The muscle flexes and rotates a region.
  • The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.
  • The muscle functions as a synergist.

The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.

64

If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________.

  • lever system is useless
  • load is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end
  • load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
  • effort is farther than the load from the fulcrum

load is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end

65

What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?

  • the shape
  • the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
  • the length
  • the number of neurons innervating it

the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

66

What is the major factor controlling how levers work?

  • the direction the load is being moved
  • the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever
  • the weight of the load
  • the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrumSubmit

67

What are the levers that operate at a mechanical advantage called?

  • functional levers
  • dysfunctional levers
  • power levers
  • speed levers

power levers

68

Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle: effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage.

True/False

True

69

Which of the following joint problems is the result of an autoimmune problem?

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Tendonitis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Bursitis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

70

A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.

True/False

true

71

Which of the following are correctly matched?

  • osteoarthritis; chronic degenerative joint disease
  • tendonitis; inflammation of the joint
  • gout; inflammation of the tendons
  • bursitis; uric acid crystals in the joint

osteoarthritis; chronic degenerative joint disease

72

Dislocation of a joint is a common orthopedic problem. Which of these joints is MOST likely to be dislocated?

  • Pubic symphysis
  • Hip (coxal)
  • Sacroiliac
  • Shoulder (glenohumeral)

Shoulder (glenohumeral)Submit

73

Baseball pitchers often require "Tommy John" surgery to repair damage to their elbow. Which ligament would this surgery target?

  • ulnar collateral ligament
  • lateral ligament
  • anular ligament
  • acetabular labrum

ulnar collateral ligament

74
card image

which structure in the figure is the primary area of degeneration in osetoarthritis?

B

75

Which of the following conditions is joint inflammation or degeneration accompanied by stiffness, pain, and swelling?

  • Lyme disease
  • osteoarthritis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • arthritis

arthritis

76

In general, a muscle that crosses on the anterior side of a joint produces ________.

  • flexion
  • extension
  • adduction
  • abduction

flexion

77

Muscles that help maintain upright posture are fixators.

True/False

true

78

Which of the following is NOT used as a criterion for naming muscles?

  • the nervous system's control of the muscle
  • the locations of the muscle attachments
  • the location of the muscle
  • the number of origins for the muscle
  • the shape of the muscle

the nervous system's control of the muscle

79

Which of the following muscles is named for its action?

  • adductor longus
  • gluteus minimus
  • frontalis
  • biceps brachii

adductor longus

80

Which of the following are correctly matched?

  • parallel arrangement of fascicles; characteristic of sphincter muscles
  • circular arrangement of fascicles; describes the deltoid muscle
  • pennate arrangement of fascicles; spindle-shaped muscle
  • convergent arrangement of fascicles; fan-shaped muscle

convergent arrangement of fascicles; fan-shaped muscle

81

The arrangement of a muscle's fascicles determines its range of motion and power.

True/False

true

82

A wheelbarrow is a good example of a second-class lever.

True/False

true

83

If L = load, F = fulcrum, and E = effort, what type of lever system is described as LEF?

  • first-class lever
  • second-class lever
  • third-class lever
  • fourth-class lever

third-class lever