Which electrons have the greatest influence on the properties of elements?
a. core electrons
b.those electrons in s orbitals
c.those electrons in d orbitals
d.the outermost electrons
e.none of these
Of the following, which periodic group(s) do not match their designation?
a.d-transition metals / IIIB IIB
b.halogens / VIIA
c.noble gases / VIIIB
d.representative metals / IA, IIA
e.alkaline earth metals / IIA
is a d-transition metal.
5.What would be the outer electron configuration of group VIA (O, S, Se, . . .)?
What would be the outer electron configuration of alkaline earth metals?
The minimum energy required to remove the most loosely held electron is
b.first ionization energy.
The first ionization energy of sulfur is less than that of phosphorus. A reasonable explanation for this fact involves
a.the smaller size of sulfur atoms relative to phosphorus atoms.
b.pairing of two electrons in one 3p orbital in sulfur atoms.
c.the higher electronegativity of sulfur relative to phosphorus.
d.the stability of the half-filled subshell in atomic sulfur.
e.the ease with which phosphorus attains a noble gas electronic configuration.
Which element has the highest first ionization energy?
Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy.F, Be, O, N, C
a.O > F > N > Be > C
b.F > O > N > C > Be
c.Be > C > O > N > F
d.F > N > O > C > Be
e.Be > C > N > O > F
Which equation below depicts the reaction from which the first ionization energy would be determined?
a.Ca(g) Ca+(g) + e
b.Ca(g) Ca2+ + e
c.Ca(s) Ca+(g) + e
d.Ca(s) + e Ca-(g)
e.None of these
12. Which of the following elements has the most negative electron affinity?
Which of the following ions is not isoelectronic with a noble gas?
Which ion has the largest radius?
Which ion has the largest radius?
Arrange the following set of ions in order of decreasing ionic radii.Al3+, Ga3+, Ca2+, Rb+, K+
a.Rb+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Al3+ > Ga3+
b.Ga3+ > Al3+ > Ca2+ > Rb+ > K+
c.Rb+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Ga3+ > Al3+
d.Rb+ > Ga3+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Al3+
e.Rb+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Ga3+ > Al3
Which of these elements has the greatest attraction for electrons in a covalent bond?
Which pair of elements below would be least likely to form an ionic bond between them?
a.Cs / O
b.C / N
c.Na / S
d.Al / F
e.Mg / Br
Write the balanced formula unit equation for the reaction of magnesium with hydrogen at high temperature. What is the sum of the coefficients? (Do not forget coefficients of one.) Use the smallest whole number coefficients.a.3b.6c.5d.4e.none of these
31.Which of the following species is isoelectronic with Ar?
32. Which of the following species would you expect to have the largest radius?
34. Arrange the following elements in order of lowest to highest electronegativity:Sodium, rubidium, potassium, cesium
a.Na < K < Rb < Cs
b.Cs < K < Na < Rb
c.Rb < Cs < Na < K
d.Na < Rb < K < Cs
e.Cs < Rb < K < Na
37. How many unpaired electrons are shown in a Lewis Dot Formula for silicon?
38. An atom of which element below has the most unpaired electrons?
39. The negative ion F has the same electronic configuration as the positive ion ____.
41. Magnesium and nitrogen react to form Mg3N2 an ionic compound. The magnesium ion, Mg2+, has ____ electrons in its highest occupied energy level.
43. The ____ bonds there are between atoms of the same two elements, the ____ the bond length and the ____ the bond.
a.fewer; greater; stronger
b.more; shorter; weaker
c.more; shorter; stronger
D.fewer; shorter; stronger
e.more; greater; weaker
46. Lewis dot formulas for molecules show all of the following except:
a.the kinds of bonds (single, double, triple)
b.the number of bonds
c.the number of valence electrons
d.the shape of the molecule
e.the order the atoms are connected
47. Draw the Lewis dot formula for NH4+. How many unshared pairs of electrons are in the outer shell of the central nitrogen atom?
48.The total number of covalent bonds in the N2 molecule is ____.
49. Which of the following guidelines for drawing Lewis formulas for covalent compounds is incorrect?
a.Representative elements (except hydrogen) usually follow the octet rule.
b.Hydrogen can never be a central atom.
c.In neutral species, nitrogen forms 3 bonds and oxygen forms 2 bonds.
d.Carbon always forms 4 bonds.
e.One carbon atom in a compound may form both a double bond and a triple bond.
51. Which response contains all the molecules below that violate the octet rule, and no others?SF4, SiCl4, H2Te, AsF5, BeI2
b.SF4, AsF5, BeI2
64. When you draw the Lewis structure for H2O, how many single bonds, double bonds, and lone pair electrons reside on the central oxygen atom?a.1 single bond, 0 double bonds, 1 lone pairb.2 single bonds, 0 double bonds, 2 lone pairsc.2 single bonds, 0 double bonds, 1 lone paird.1 single bond, 0 double bonds, 0 lone pairse.1 single bond, 0 double bonds, 2 lone pairs
65. The electrons in the outer shell of an atom are involved in bonding. Another name for the outer shell is ____.
68. What angle(s) are associated with a central atom that has tetrahedral electronic geometry?
a.90 and 180
c.90 and 120
d.120 and 180
69. The hybridization associated with the central atom of a molecule in which all the bond angles are 180 is ____.
70. What is (are) the bond angle(s) in BeI2 molecules?
b.90 and 180
e.120 and 90
71. Which of the following molecules has 120 bond angles?
72. Which one of the following molecules has only 120 bond angles?
76. The electronic geometry of the central atom in PCl3 is ____.
79. An element that is sp3d hybridized and which has no lone pairs of electrons around it in a molecule is at the center of a(n) ____ described by imaginary lines connecting the identical surrounding atoms.
80. What is the hybridization at arsenic in AsF5 molecules?
81. Which one of the following molecules has sp3d hybridization at the central atom?;
83. Which one of the following is a polar molecule with nonpolar bonds?
e.none of thes
84. Which one of the following is a polar molecule with nonpolar bonds?
e.none of these
85. What is the hybridization at the sulfur atom in SF6?
86. Which of the following species has square pyramidal molecular geometry?
93. What is the bond angle in a trigonal planar molecule or ion? a.109°
94. What is the molecular geometry around the nitrogen atom?
b.see-saw or distorted tetrahedral
95. Which of the following molecules is nonpolar?
a.sulfur dioxide, SO2
b.hydrogen fluoride, HF
c.boron trifluoride, BF3
d.sulfur tetrafluoride, SF4
e.phosphorus trifluoride, PF
97. What is the shape (molecular geometry) of IBr3?
100. A molecule has sp3 hybridization with 1 lone pair. What is the geometry of this molecule?