Microbial Metabolism

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
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1

Catabolism

Breaks down complex molecules; provides energy and building blocks for anabolism; exergonic.

2

Anabolism

Uses energy and building blocks to build complex molecules; endergonic.

3

Metabolic Pathways

Sequences of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell.

4

Catalysts

Speed up chemical reactions without being altered.

5

Enzymes

Biological Catalysts

substrate complex

6

Enzyme Components

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+)

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)

Coenzyme A

7

Factors that Influence Enzyme Activity

Temperature

pH

Substrate concentration

Inhibitors

High temperature and extreme pH denature proteins

8

Competitive Inhibitors

Fill the active site of an enzyme and compete with the substrate

9

Noncompetitive Inhibitors

Interact with another part of the enzyme (allosteric site) rather than the active site.

10

Oxidation

Removal of Electrons

11

Reduction

Gain of electrons

12

Redox Reaction

An oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaction

13

Electron Transport Chain (system)

Electrons are transferred from one electron carrier to another.

14

Breakdown of Carbohydrates to release energy.

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport Chain (system)

15

Glycolysis

glucose + 2 ATP + 2 ADP + 2 PO4- + 2 NAD+ -----> 2 pyruvic acid + 4 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H+

16

What is the overall net gain.

Overall net gain of two molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose oxidized.

17

Pentose phosphate pathway

Uses pentoses and produces NADPH, operates simultaneously with glycolysis.

18

Cellular Respiration

Final electron acceptor comes from outside the cell and is inorganic.

19

What happens to ATP during cellular respiration?

ATP is generated by the oxidative phosphorylation

20

Aerobic Respiration

Pyruvic Acid (from glycolysis) us oxidized and decarboxylation (loss of CO2) occurs.

21

What is the result of the ending of Aerobic respiration?

Two carbon compounds attach to coenzyme A, forming acetyl CoA and NADH.

22

Chemiosmosis

Energy released then used to produce ATP.

23

Alcohol Fermentation

Produces ethanol and CO2

24

Light-Dependent (light) reactions

Conversion of light energy into chemical energy (ATP and NADPH)

25

Light-Independent (dark) reactions

ATP and NADPH are used to reduce CO2 to sugar (carbon fixation) via the Calvin-Benson cycle.

26

Oxygenic

6 CO2 + 12 H20 + light energy ----> 6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2

27

Anoxygenic

6 CO2 + 12 H2S + light energy -----> C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 12 S

28

Photoautotroph

Energy Source - Light

Carbon S - CO2

Example - Cyanobacteria, plants, green/purple and/or bacteria

29

Photoheterotroph

Energy Source - Light

Carbon S - Organic Compounds

Examples - Green, bacteria, purple non sulfur bacteria

30

Chemosutotroph

Energy Source - Inorganic Chemical

Carbon S - CO2

Examples - Iron oxidizing bacteria

31

Chemoheterotroph

Energy Source - Chemical

Carbon S - Organic Compounds

Examples - Fermentative, bacteria, animals and protozoa