Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
True nucleus (ex: humans)
Group of Four
1. external to cell wall
2. made of polysaccharid and polypeptide
Two types of glycocalyx
Capsule and slime layer
Neatly organized and attached
unorganized and loose
Three parts of the Flagella
Filament and hook
Attaches to filament
Hairlike appendages that allow for attachment
Involved in motility (gliding and twitching)
involved in DNA transfer from one cell to another
Only found in bacteria.
N-acetylglucosamine - multiple layers
N-acetylmuramic acid - multiple layers
Gulible for antibiotics and apart of the gram-positive cell walls
Lack cell walls
is a wall-less gram positive cell
wall-less gram negative cell
Hydrophilic (water loving)
Allows the passage of some molecules, but not others.
Substances move from high concentration to low concentration; no energy expended.
Substances move from low concentration to high concentration; energy expended. (water is a universal solvent)
Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Solute Combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.
Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water to an area of low water concentration.
Solute concentrations equal inside and outside of cell; water is at equilibrium.
Solute concentration is LOWER outside than inside the cell; water moves into cell.
Solute concentration is HIGHER outside of the cell than inside; water moves out of cell.
Phosphoenolpyruvic Acid (PEP)
needed in an active transport
Seen only in the bacterium. Cannot be killed.
Endospore returns to vegetative state
Long projections; few in number.
Short Projections, numerous.
Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Pseudopods extend and engulf particles
Membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substances.
Substance inside the plasma and outside the nucleus
Fluid portion of cytoplasm
Made of microfilaments and intermediate filaments; gives shape and support.
Movement of the cytoplasm throughout the cell.
Double Membrane Structure
DNA is complexed with histone proteins to form what?
During mitosis and meiosis, chromatin condenses into what?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Studded with ribosomes, sites of protein synthesis.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
No ribosomes, synthesizes the cell membranes, fats and hormones.
What makes up the Mitochondria?
Cristae - inner folds
Matrix - Fluid