Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Microbiology
Chapter 4
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1

Prokaryote

prenucleus

2

Eukaryote

True nucleus (ex: humans)

3

Bacillus

Rod Shaped

4

Coccus

Spherical

5

Pairs

Diplococci/Diplobacilli

6

Cluster

Staphylococci

7

Group of Four

Tetrad

8

Glycocalyx

1. external to cell wall

2. made of polysaccharid and polypeptide

9

Two types of glycocalyx

Capsule and slime layer

10

Capsule

Neatly organized and attached

11

Slime Layer

unorganized and loose

12

Three parts of the Flagella

Filament and hook

13

Filament

Outtermost region

14

Hook

Attaches to filament

15

Fimbriae

Hairlike appendages that allow for attachment

16

Pili

Involved in motility (gliding and twitching)

17

Conjugation pili

involved in DNA transfer from one cell to another

18

Peptidoglycan

Only found in bacteria.

19

NAG

N-acetylglucosamine - multiple layers

20

NAM

N-acetylmuramic acid - multiple layers

21

Teichoic Acids

Gulible for antibiotics and apart of the gram-positive cell walls

22

Mycoplasmas

Lack cell walls

23

Protoplast

is a wall-less gram positive cell

24

Spheroplast

wall-less gram negative cell

25

Phosphate Heads

Hydrophilic (water loving)

26

Selective Permeability

Allows the passage of some molecules, but not others.

27

Passive Processes

Substances move from high concentration to low concentration; no energy expended.

28

Active Processes

Substances move from low concentration to high concentration; energy expended. (water is a universal solvent)

29

Simple Diffusion

Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

30

Facilitated Diffusion

Solute Combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.

31

Osmosis

Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water to an area of low water concentration.

32

Isotonic Osmosis

Solute concentrations equal inside and outside of cell; water is at equilibrium.

33

Hypotonic Solution

Solute concentration is LOWER outside than inside the cell; water moves into cell.

34

Hypertonic Solution

Solute concentration is HIGHER outside of the cell than inside; water moves out of cell.

35

Phosphoenolpyruvic Acid (PEP)

needed in an active transport

36

Endospores

Seen only in the bacterium. Cannot be killed.

37

Sporulation

Endospore formation

38

Germination

Endospore returns to vegetative state

39

Flagella

Long projections; few in number.

40

Cilia

Short Projections, numerous.

41

Endocytosis

Phagocytosis and pinocytosis

42

Phagocytosis

Pseudopods extend and engulf particles

43

Pinocytosis

Membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substances.

44

Cytoplasm

Substance inside the plasma and outside the nucleus

45

Cytosol

Fluid portion of cytoplasm

46

Cytoskeleton

Made of microfilaments and intermediate filaments; gives shape and support.

47

Cytoplasmic Streaming

Movement of the cytoplasm throughout the cell.

48

Nuclear Envelope

Double Membrane Structure

49

DNA is complexed with histone proteins to form what?

Chromatin

50

During mitosis and meiosis, chromatin condenses into what?

Chromosomes

51

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Studded with ribosomes, sites of protein synthesis.

52

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

No ribosomes, synthesizes the cell membranes, fats and hormones.

53

What makes up the Mitochondria?

Cristae - inner folds

Matrix - Fluid

54

Thylakoids

Flattened Membranes