CNS Exam 2 Part 2
Which disorder in Diabetes Mellitus causes damage to ANS nerve fibers?
Which disorder of the ANS—blocks ACh release—motor paralysis, blurred vision, dry mouth, unreactive pupils, etc?
Which ANS disorder is caused by SNS>PNS?
Which ANS disorder—spinal cord injury—v. high BP?
Which ANS disorder—painful, exaggerated vasoconstriction in fingers and toes—triggered by cold?
Which drug is used to treat OP nerve gas poisoning?
What is the drug class of Pralidoxime?
Pralidoxime is always used in combination with what drug?
Which organ has many functions – drug metabolism, glucose production (gluconeogenesis), storage (glycogenesis), release (glycolysis)?
What is the only digestive function of the liver?
Bile is a what?
What is the chief function of the gallbladder?
bile storage and release
There is direct expression of M3 and beta-2 receptors on what area of the gallbladder?
smooth muscle walls
The kidneys regulate what?
blood volume, and in turn blood pressure
Necrotic damage to the nephrons is known as what?
chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is mostly cause by which disease states?
What are the 3 cell populations of the Juxtaglomerular Complex (JGC)?
- Juxtaglomerular or granular cells
- Racula densa
- Extraglomerular mesangial cells
Chemoreceptors; sense NaCl content of filtrate relate to which cells of the JGC?
Which cells of the JGC may pass signals between macula densa and granular cells?
Extraglomerular mesangial cells
The following bullets describe which cells?
Smooth muscle cells of arteriole (blood vessels)
◦Secretory granules contain enzyme renin
◦Release is stimulated by β1 receptors
Juxtaglomerular or granular cells
The release of Renin coverts Angiotensin into what?
What converts Angiotensin 1 into Angiotensin 2?
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
Angiotensin 1 causes the adrenal cortex to release what?
Aldosterone release leads to what?
Increased Sodium reabsorption
Angiotension 1 causes the pituitary to release what?
ADH release in the pituitary leads to what?
Increased water reabsorption
Angiotensin 1 causes the hypothalamus to increase what?
Increase of thirst in the hypothalamus leads to what?
increase water intake
Angiotensin 1 causes an increase of what of blood vessels?
Increased sodium and water reabsorption and increased water intake relate to what?
blood volume--> increase arterial pressure
Increased vasoconstriction from Angiotensin 1 leads to what?
Increased arterial pressure
What juice reduces BP?
Pomegranate juice reduces levels of what?
The detrusor muscle of the bladder is contracted via what?
The detrusor muscle is dilated via what?
The internal urethral sphincter is dilated via what?
The internal urethral sphincter is contracted via what?
Noncancerous enlargement of prostate gland stemming from an increase in the number of stromal (smooth muscle), epithelial (glandular) tissue cells, or both is known as what?
Nerve agents block what?
What is an oxime—approved by the FDA that reverses the binding of AChE inhibitors to AChE?