chapter 20 abdominal and GI emergencies

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1

esophagus location

substernal, epigastric

2

stomach location

LUQ, epigastric

3

liver location

upper abdomen (mainly right with central upper abdomen)

4

pancreas location

posterior to the stomach

5

gallbladder location

inferior surface of the liver

6

spleen location

left upper abdomen

7

aorta location

central upper abdomen

8

bladder location

suprapubic area

9

uterus location

suprapubic area

10

hematemesis

black of very dark red granular material, food and blood are indistinguishable

11

hematemesis causes

blood from mouth, esophagus, or stomach that has been digested by stomach acids and then vomited

12

vomitus with gross blood

vomit that is red, food and blood is distinguishable

13

vomitus with gross blood causes

bleeding from the mouth or esophagus that has not been exposed to stomach acids

14

diarrhea

frequent liquid stool with the consistency of water, range in color from clear to dark brown

15

diarrhea causes

intestinal infections, bowel obstruction, small intestinal disorders, always considered abnormal

16

acholic stools

tan colored, formed stools, may be softer than typical

17

acholic stool causes

liver disease

liver releases bile into the small intestine; bile gives stool its normally dark color

18

steatorrhea

foamy, foul-smelling, mushy, yellow to gray stools; these oily stools usually float within water

19

steatorrhea causes

liver or pancreas disease causing excessive excretion of fat within the stool

20

soft stool

bowel movement that is the consistency of soft-serve ice cream; can range in color from tan to dark brown

21

soft stool causes

normal variant for some people; caused by new foods or a rapid change in diet

22

hematochezia

stool and blood that are incorporated together into the same substance, yet are easily distinguished from each other

23

hematochezia causes

bleeding from the lower GI tract

24

melena

black, tarry, sticky, and very odorus stool and blood blended together into one substance; blood can not be distinguished from stool

25

melena causes

bleeding from the upper GI tract

26

visceral pain origin

hollow organs

27

visceral pain description

difficult to localize, described as burning, cramping, gnawing or aching. Usually felt superficially

28

visceral pain cause

organ contracts too forcefully or is distended

29

parietal pain/rebound pain origin

peritoneum

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parietal pain/rebound pain description

steady, achy pain, easier to localize and increases with movement

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parietal pain/rebound pain cause

inflammation of the peritoneum (caused by bleeding or infection)

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somatic pain origin

peripheral nerve tracts

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somatic pain description

localized pain usually felt deeply

34

somatic pain cause

irritation or injury to tissue causing activation of peripheral nerve tracts

35

referred pain origin

peripheral nerve tracts

36

referred pain description

pain originating in the abdomen and causing perception of pain in distant locations

37

referred pain cause

usually occurs after initial visceral, parietal and somatic pain