Chapter 4: Sensations and Perception

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1

What are the 10 sensation systems?

1. Vision

2. Audition

3. Olfaction

4. Gustation

5. Somatosensation

6. Vestibular sense

7. Proprioception

8. Kinesthesia

9. Nocicepetion

10. Thermoception

2

What is audition associated with?

hearing

3

What is olfaction associated with?

smell

4

What is gustation associated with?

taste

5

What is somatosensation associated with?

touch/pressure

6

What is vestibular sense associated with?

balance

7

What is proprioception associated with?

body postion

8

What is kinesthesia associated with?

body movement

9

What is nocioception associated with?

pain (extreme pressure)

10

What is thermoception associated with?

body temperature

11

What two sensation systems make up the vestibular sense?

Proprioception snd kinesthesia

12

What is sensation?

detection of sensory information by a sensory detector

13

What kind of process are sensations?

physical processes

14

What are the two thresholds of sensation?

1. Absolute

2. Difference

15

What is the absolute threshold?

- Subliminal messages

- lowest level of stimuli

- required to be detected 50% of the time

16

What is the difference threshold?

difference of stimuli based on intensity

17

What is perception?

interpretation of sensation

18

What kind of process is perception?

psychological process because it requires concsiousness

19

What is inattentional blindness

being blind to aspects you dont pay attention to

20

what is the signal detection theory?

ability to differentiate between information patterns and random patterns created for distraction

21

What is the cornea?

translucent membrane on outermost part of the eye

22

What is the function of the cornea?

helps focus light on the lens

23

What is the pupil?

black dot located in the center of the eye

24

What is the function of the pupil?

a hole that constricts/dilates depending on the amount of light surrounding the eye to get the right amount of light to the lens

25

What is the iris?

the colored portion of the eye

26

What is the retina?

Light sensitive membrane located in the back of the eye

27

What is the retina used for?

Peripheral vision

28

What are fovea?

Light sensitive membranes located in the back of the eye, but is the exact point where the light hits

29

What is the fovea used for?

To view what you are actually seeing

30

What is the optic nerve?

A nerve that transports information from the eye to the occipital lobe

31

What is the optic nerve made of?

Ganglion cells

32

Where is the lens located?

right behind the pupil

33

What does the lens do?

helps refract light to be focused on the retina in order to see images clearer

34

What are the two photoreceptors in the eye?

Cones and Rods

35

What do cones measure?

Measure color (from different wave lengths)

36

Where are cones located?

Fovea

37

What kind of light do cones work best in?

Bright light

38

What do rods measure?

Measures movement and distance

39

Where are rods located?

Retina

40

What kind of light do rods work best in?

Darker light

41

What happens in the optic chasm? and Why does this happen?

It maps the right side of our vision onto the left hemisphere and the left side of our vision onto the right hemisphere

because, our brain is contralteral

42

Why are illusions used?

- They point out error in our perception

- They allow us to learn more about ourselves

43

In what form does light enter the eye?

As a wave

44

What is the wavelength?

The distance between two peaks, or troughs, of a wave

45

What is a peak?

The very top of a wave

46

What is a trough?

The very bottom of a wave

47

What is the amplitude?

The length from the peak to the trough

48

What are the two theories of color vision?

1. Trichromatic Theory

2. Opponent Process Theory

49

What is the trichromatic theory?

Applies to visual processing on the retina

50

What is the opponent process theory?

applies once the signal moves past the retina and to the brain

51

What are the three colors all colors can be produced by?

Red, Green, Blue

52

What are the color coded opponent pairs?

Red-Green

Yellow-Blue

White-Black

53

What does the color coded opponent pairs mean?

You cannot view one of these colors while viewing the others

54

What is the achromatic system?

- Lacks hues

- Have lightness but no saturation

55

What is the chromatic system?

- Has saturation

- Is a color

56

What are the three types of color blindness?

1. Protanopia

2. Deuteranopia

3. Tritanopia

57

What is protanopia?`

Sensitive to red colors

58

What is deuteranopia?

Sensitive to green colors

Very common

59

What is tritanopia?

Inability to distinguish between blue and yellow

60

What two types of color blindness are considered "red-green color blindness"?

protanopia and deutanpia

61

What is depth perception?

Ability to perceive spatial relationships in a 3-D space

62

What are the two kinds of depth perception?

Binocular Cues and Monocular Cues

63

What are binocular cues?

Visual information taken in by two eyes and each of our eyes takes in a slightly different view than the other

64

What is the angle of convergence?

The angle formed between the visual axis of an eye focused on an object

- The closer you are to an object the larger the AOC and the farther away you are from the object the smaller the AOC

65

What are monocular cues?

Viewing an object with only one eye

66

What is occlusion?

When moving, the relative motion of stationary objects behind the object you are trying to view gives hints about their relative distance

67

What are the Gestalt Principles of Perception?

the brain creates a perception that is more than simply the sum of available sensory inputs

68

What is closure?

tendency to see a finished object when its not finished yet

69

What is a figure-ground relationship?

When the ground is always seen as further away than the figure

70

What is proximity?

When objects are closer together, they are grounded together

71

What is similarity?

When similar objects are grouped together

72

What is continuation?

objects that continues a pattern are grouped together

73

What are the three areas of the ear?

Outer, Middle, and Inner

74

What are the parts of the outer ear? (3)

Pinna, Auditory Canal, Tympanic Membrane

75

What is the pinna?

- The top part of your ear

- Helps tunnel sound into the eardrum

76

What's the auditory canal?

- Where sound waves travel to the eardrum

- The outer ear ends at the end of the canal

77

What's the tympanic membrane?

- Separates outer ear from the middle ear

- Transmits sound through vibrations from the air to the bones of the middle ear

78

What are the three parts of the middle ear?

Malleus, Incus, and Stapes

79

What is the malleus?

- Also known as the hammer

- Beating of the eardrum

80

What is the incus?

- Also knows as the anvil

- Transmits vibration from malleus to the stapes

81

What is the stapes?

- Also known as the Stirrup

- Connected to the oval window

- Last bone to receive vibration of sound

82

What are the three parts of the inner ear?

Choclea, Auditory nerve, and The vestibular

83

What is the choclea?

- Involved in hearing and the vestibular system

- Sound waves are transformed into electrical impulses which are sent to the brain

84

What is the auditory nerve?

- A nerve that carries information from the choclea to the brain

- Bundle of nerve fibers

85

What is the vestibular?

- Organ of equilibrium

- Register the body's movements, and painting of balance

86

What is pitch?

- Determined by frequency

- Distance between two peaks

87

What is loudness?

determined by amplitude

88

What is timbre?

- Sound quality

- determined by interaction of frequency and amplitude

89

What are the two theories of pitch perception?

1. Temporal

2. Place

90

What is the Temporal theory?

- Frequency is coded by activity level of a sensory neuron

- applies to low frequencies

91

What is the place theory?

-different parts of the basil ganglia have different sound sensativties

- applies to higher frequencies

92

What is sound localization?

How we identify where sound is actually coming from

93

What are the two cues we use for sound localization?

1. Binaural

2. Monaural

94

What do we use Binaural cues relating to sound localization for?

Using both ears to determined the distance of a sound

95

What are the two types of binaural cues, relating to sound localization?

1. Interaural level difference

2. Interaural timing difference

96

What is interaural level difference?

loudest in the ear closest to the sound source

97

What is Interaural timing difference?

The ear ear closest to the sound source will hear the sound first

98

What direction are binaural cues, relating to sound localization, measured in?

Right to Left

99

What do we use Monaural cues relating to sound localization for?

Only one ear is needed

Pinna Interaction

- the left ear is a little different from the right ear so the shape of the ear will determine the way and amount of sound entering the ear

100

What direction are monaural cues, relating to sound localization, measured in?

Front to back

101

What are the 3 types of deafness?

1. Congenital deafness

2. Conductive hearing loss

3. Sensorineural hearing loss

102

What is congenital deafness?

When you are born deaf

103

What is conductive hearing loss?

- Aquiered hearing loss

- Either done over time or buy breaking an ossicle

104

What is sensorineural hearing loss?

- Problem with neural imputes being sent from ear to brain

- Occurs in the basil membrane

105

What are the five types of taste?

1. Bitter

2. Sour

3. Salt

4. Sweet

5. Unami

106

Where is each type of taste located on the tounge?

1. Bitter - back of tongue

2. Sour - On the side, but near the back

3. Salt - On the side, but near the front

4. Sweet - on the tip

5. Unami- Middle of the tounge

107

What is unami?

The general taste of "good"

108

What are the three areas of smell?

1. Olfactory Bulb

2. Olfactory receptors

3. Nasal membrane

109

What is the olfactory bulb?

- The top of the nasal membrane

- Where the olfactory nerve starts

110

What is the olfactory receptor?

- Specific to certain types of chemicals

- 350 + different odorants

111

What is the nasal membrane?

- mucus membrane

112

What is transduction?

conversion of stimulation into nerve impulses

113

What are mechanoreceptors?

mechanical stimuli

114

What are the 4 types of mechanoreceptors?

1. Merkel DIsks

2. Meissner's Corpuscles

3. Ruffini corpuscles

4. Pacinian corpuscles

115

What are merkel discs?

pressure

116

What are meisser's corpuscles?

- indentatino

- higher levels of pressure

117

What are ruffini corpuscles?

Stretching

118

What are pacinian corpuscles?

Vibration

119

What are thermoreceptors?

Receptors sensitive to temperature

120

What are chemoreceptors?

respond to chemicals applied externally or released within the skin

121

What are nocioreceptors?

receptors responding to tissue-damaging stimuli (pain)

122

What are the two types of pain?

1. Neuropathic pain

2. Inflammatory Pain

123

What is neuropathic pain?

pain from nerves in your body

124

What is inflammatory pain?

result from an external injury to the body

125

What is the vestibular system?

the system that maintains equilibrium and balance

126

Where is the vestibular system located?

Next to the choclea in the inner ear

127

What is proprioception?

Body position

128

What is kinesthesia?

Movement of body

129

What is multimodal perception?

- Binding of multiple senses

130

What is cross modal senses?

Interaction of multiple senses