Chapter 4: Sensations and Perception
What are the 10 sensation systems?
6. Vestibular sense
What is audition associated with?
What is olfaction associated with?
What is gustation associated with?
What is somatosensation associated with?
What is vestibular sense associated with?
What is proprioception associated with?
What is kinesthesia associated with?
What is nocioception associated with?
pain (extreme pressure)
What is thermoception associated with?
What two sensation systems make up the vestibular sense?
Proprioception snd kinesthesia
What is sensation?
detection of sensory information by a sensory detector
What kind of process are sensations?
What are the two thresholds of sensation?
What is the absolute threshold?
- Subliminal messages
- lowest level of stimuli
- required to be detected 50% of the time
What is the difference threshold?
difference of stimuli based on intensity
What is perception?
interpretation of sensation
What kind of process is perception?
psychological process because it requires concsiousness
What is inattentional blindness
being blind to aspects you dont pay attention to
what is the signal detection theory?
ability to differentiate between information patterns and random patterns created for distraction
What is the cornea?
translucent membrane on outermost part of the eye
What is the function of the cornea?
helps focus light on the lens
What is the pupil?
black dot located in the center of the eye
What is the function of the pupil?
a hole that constricts/dilates depending on the amount of light surrounding the eye to get the right amount of light to the lens
What is the iris?
the colored portion of the eye
What is the retina?
Light sensitive membrane located in the back of the eye
What is the retina used for?
What are fovea?
Light sensitive membranes located in the back of the eye, but is the exact point where the light hits
What is the fovea used for?
To view what you are actually seeing
What is the optic nerve?
A nerve that transports information from the eye to the occipital lobe
What is the optic nerve made of?
Where is the lens located?
right behind the pupil
What does the lens do?
helps refract light to be focused on the retina in order to see images clearer
What are the two photoreceptors in the eye?
Cones and Rods
What do cones measure?
Measure color (from different wave lengths)
Where are cones located?
What kind of light do cones work best in?
What do rods measure?
Measures movement and distance
Where are rods located?
What kind of light do rods work best in?
What happens in the optic chasm? and Why does this happen?
It maps the right side of our vision onto the left hemisphere and the left side of our vision onto the right hemisphere
because, our brain is contralteral
Why are illusions used?
- They point out error in our perception
- They allow us to learn more about ourselves
In what form does light enter the eye?
As a wave
What is the wavelength?
The distance between two peaks, or troughs, of a wave
What is a peak?
The very top of a wave
What is a trough?
The very bottom of a wave
What is the amplitude?
The length from the peak to the trough
What are the two theories of color vision?
1. Trichromatic Theory
2. Opponent Process Theory
What is the trichromatic theory?
Applies to visual processing on the retina
What is the opponent process theory?
applies once the signal moves past the retina and to the brain
What are the three colors all colors can be produced by?
Red, Green, Blue
What are the color coded opponent pairs?
What does the color coded opponent pairs mean?
You cannot view one of these colors while viewing the others
What is the achromatic system?
- Lacks hues
- Have lightness but no saturation
What is the chromatic system?
- Has saturation
- Is a color
What are the three types of color blindness?
What is protanopia?`
Sensitive to red colors
What is deuteranopia?
Sensitive to green colors
What is tritanopia?
Inability to distinguish between blue and yellow
What two types of color blindness are considered "red-green color blindness"?
protanopia and deutanpia
What is depth perception?
Ability to perceive spatial relationships in a 3-D space
What are the two kinds of depth perception?
Binocular Cues and Monocular Cues
What are binocular cues?
Visual information taken in by two eyes and each of our eyes takes in a slightly different view than the other
What is the angle of convergence?
The angle formed between the visual axis of an eye focused on an object
- The closer you are to an object the larger the AOC and the farther away you are from the object the smaller the AOC
What are monocular cues?
Viewing an object with only one eye
What is occlusion?
When moving, the relative motion of stationary objects behind the object you are trying to view gives hints about their relative distance
What are the Gestalt Principles of Perception?
the brain creates a perception that is more than simply the sum of available sensory inputs
What is closure?
tendency to see a finished object when its not finished yet
What is a figure-ground relationship?
When the ground is always seen as further away than the figure
What is proximity?
When objects are closer together, they are grounded together
What is similarity?
When similar objects are grouped together
What is continuation?
objects that continues a pattern are grouped together
What are the three areas of the ear?
Outer, Middle, and Inner
What are the parts of the outer ear? (3)
Pinna, Auditory Canal, Tympanic Membrane
What is the pinna?
- The top part of your ear
- Helps tunnel sound into the eardrum
What's the auditory canal?
- Where sound waves travel to the eardrum
- The outer ear ends at the end of the canal
What's the tympanic membrane?
- Separates outer ear from the middle ear
- Transmits sound through vibrations from the air to the bones of the middle ear
What are the three parts of the middle ear?
Malleus, Incus, and Stapes
What is the malleus?
- Also known as the hammer
- Beating of the eardrum
What is the incus?
- Also knows as the anvil
- Transmits vibration from malleus to the stapes
What is the stapes?
- Also known as the Stirrup
- Connected to the oval window
- Last bone to receive vibration of sound
What are the three parts of the inner ear?
Choclea, Auditory nerve, and The vestibular
What is the choclea?
- Involved in hearing and the vestibular system
- Sound waves are transformed into electrical impulses which are sent to the brain
What is the auditory nerve?
- A nerve that carries information from the choclea to the brain
- Bundle of nerve fibers
What is the vestibular?
- Organ of equilibrium
- Register the body's movements, and painting of balance
What is pitch?
- Determined by frequency
- Distance between two peaks
What is loudness?
determined by amplitude
What is timbre?
- Sound quality
- determined by interaction of frequency and amplitude
What are the two theories of pitch perception?
What is the Temporal theory?
- Frequency is coded by activity level of a sensory neuron
- applies to low frequencies
What is the place theory?
-different parts of the basil ganglia have different sound sensativties
- applies to higher frequencies
What is sound localization?
How we identify where sound is actually coming from
What are the two cues we use for sound localization?
What do we use Binaural cues relating to sound localization for?
Using both ears to determined the distance of a sound
What are the two types of binaural cues, relating to sound localization?
1. Interaural level difference
2. Interaural timing difference
What is interaural level difference?
loudest in the ear closest to the sound source
What is Interaural timing difference?
The ear ear closest to the sound source will hear the sound first
What direction are binaural cues, relating to sound localization, measured in?
Right to Left
What do we use Monaural cues relating to sound localization for?
Only one ear is needed
- the left ear is a little different from the right ear so the shape of the ear will determine the way and amount of sound entering the ear
What direction are monaural cues, relating to sound localization, measured in?
Front to back
What are the 3 types of deafness?
1. Congenital deafness
2. Conductive hearing loss
3. Sensorineural hearing loss
What is congenital deafness?
When you are born deaf
What is conductive hearing loss?
- Aquiered hearing loss
- Either done over time or buy breaking an ossicle
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
- Problem with neural imputes being sent from ear to brain
- Occurs in the basil membrane
What are the five types of taste?
Where is each type of taste located on the tounge?
1. Bitter - back of tongue
2. Sour - On the side, but near the back
3. Salt - On the side, but near the front
4. Sweet - on the tip
5. Unami- Middle of the tounge
What is unami?
The general taste of "good"
What are the three areas of smell?
1. Olfactory Bulb
2. Olfactory receptors
3. Nasal membrane
What is the olfactory bulb?
- The top of the nasal membrane
- Where the olfactory nerve starts
What is the olfactory receptor?
- Specific to certain types of chemicals
- 350 + different odorants
What is the nasal membrane?
- mucus membrane
What is transduction?
conversion of stimulation into nerve impulses
What are mechanoreceptors?
What are the 4 types of mechanoreceptors?
1. Merkel DIsks
2. Meissner's Corpuscles
3. Ruffini corpuscles
4. Pacinian corpuscles
What are merkel discs?
What are meisser's corpuscles?
- higher levels of pressure
What are ruffini corpuscles?
What are pacinian corpuscles?
What are thermoreceptors?
Receptors sensitive to temperature
What are chemoreceptors?
respond to chemicals applied externally or released within the skin
What are nocioreceptors?
receptors responding to tissue-damaging stimuli (pain)
What are the two types of pain?
1. Neuropathic pain
2. Inflammatory Pain
What is neuropathic pain?
pain from nerves in your body
What is inflammatory pain?
result from an external injury to the body
What is the vestibular system?
the system that maintains equilibrium and balance
Where is the vestibular system located?
Next to the choclea in the inner ear
What is proprioception?
What is kinesthesia?
Movement of body
What is multimodal perception?
- Binding of multiple senses
What is cross modal senses?
Interaction of multiple senses