Anatomy Exam 1

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Nonmembranous organelles -structure and function
1. cytoskeleton
2. microvilli
3. centrosome
4. cilia
5. ribosome

1. microtubules & microfilaments, strenght & support, movement of cell structures and materials
2. microfilaments, increase surface area for absorption
3. cytoplasm containing two centrioles at right angles to each other, each centriole is composed of 9 microtubules triplets, movement of chromosomes during cell division, organize microtubules in cytoskeleton
4. membrane extensions containing microtubule doublets in 9+2 array, moves materials over cell surface
5. RNA + proteins, attached ribosomes bound to rER, free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm, protein synthesis


membranous organelles -structure and function
1. mitochondria
2. nucleus
3. endoplasmic reticulum
4. golgi apparatus
5. lysosome
6. peroxisome

1. double membrane with inner membrane folds called cristae that have metabolic enzymes; produces 95% of ATP

2. nucleoplasm contains nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by double-layer membrane called nuclear envelope with nuclear pores; dense region in nucleoplasm called nucleolus that contains DNA & RNA; controls metabolism, storage and processing of genetic info, controls protein synthesis, site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits

3. network of membranous channels; synthesis of secretory products, intracellular storage and transport; rER: modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins; sER: lipid, steroid, and carbohydrate synthesis, calcium ion storage

4. stacks of flattened membranes(cisternae); storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes

5. vesicles containing digestive enzymes; intracellular removal of damaged organelles and pathogens; sometimes rupture killing cell called autolysis

6. vesicles containing degradative enzymes; catabolism of fats & other organic compounds, neutralization of toxic compounds generated in process; in liver cells to neutralize toxin absorbed in digestive tract

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  1. glycolipids
  2. phospholipid bilayer
  3. integral protein with channel
  4. hydrophobic tails
  5. internal glycoproteins
  6. cytoskeleton (microfilaments)
  7. hydrophilic heads
  8. peripheral proteins
  9. cholesterol
  10. gated chanel

functions of Plasmalemma

  • physical isolation of cell
  • Permeability

--Passive processes: diffusion, osmosis

--Active processes: exocytosis, endocytosis (pinocytosis-uptake of extracellular fluids and solutes; phagocytosis-bring solid particles into cell)

  • sensitivity
  • cell to cell relationships

--communication, adhesion, structural support

  • active process: exocytosis

--release intracellular material(fluid, cellular wastes, secretory products)

  • microvilli, to absorb material and increase surface area
  1. microfilaments
  2. intermediate filaments
  3. thick filaments
  4. microtubules
  1. actin
  2. transport material within cytosol
  3. myosin
  4. tubulin, forms centrioles, cilia, and flagella, move materials within cells and on cellular surface and move entire cell
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1. microvilli

2. microfilaments

3. plasmalemma

4. intermediate filaments

5. microtubule

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What is this?

Cilium -capable of active motion

1. plasmalemma

2. microtubule (9doublets+2)

3. basal body

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1. vesicles

2. maturing (trans) face

3. forming (cis) face


Membrane flow

--ER delivers proteins to cis face of Golgi in transport vesicles

--secretory vesicles go from Golig to plasmalemma

--vesicles exocytose and add membrane to plasmalemma

--endocytosis brings segments of plasmalemma into cytoplasm

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1. maturing (trans) face

2. secretory vesicle

3. forming(cis) face - transport vesicle here


Cellular junctions

  • cell adhesion molecules (CAMS) -interconnected transmembrane proteins
  • intercellular cement -protein/sugar complex sicks cells together
  • gap junctions -facilitate intercellular communication, connects with channel
  • tight junctions -seal spaces, prevents fluid movement between cells
  • desmosomes -spot desmosomes have CAMS that connect at specific spots; hemidesmosomes are half of a spot desmosome; connect cell to basement membrane
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1. tight junctions

2. spot desmosomes

3. gap junctions -embedded proteins (connexons)

4. hemidesmosomes



--primary spermatogonium/oogonium produce 2 diploid daughter cells

--daughter cells( primary oocyte/spermatocyte) divide to produce secondary oocytes/spermatocyte (both are diploid), this is Meiosis I

--Meiosis II, secondary oocytes/spermatocytes divide again without replicating chromosomes to make haploid spermatids/ova


Characteristics of Epithelium

  1. cells close together, adhere to each other by special junctions,--forms layers that act as barriers
  2. distinct surfaces (polarity)--apical/free surface, lateral surface, basal surface
  3. specialized projections (microvilli, cilia, stereocilia)
  4. avascular
  5. regenerative
  6. basal surface attached to basement membrane (basement membrane is acellular, it attaches epithelium to underlying connective tissue)
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  1. stereocilia -long microvilli along male reproductive tract and inner ear
  2. cilia -microtubules
  3. microvilli -actin microfilaments
  4. apical surface
  5. golgi apparatus
  6. nucleus
  7. basal lamina
  8. mitochondria
  9. basolateral surfaces
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Types of Epithelium -location found

  1. simple squamous -lining body cavities, blood vessels, lungs
  2. simple cuboidal -glands, ducts, kidney tubules
  3. simple columnar -lining of stomach & intestines
  4. pseudostratified ciliated columnar -lining of some respiratory passages(trachea, paranasal), contains goblet cells to secrete mucin
  5. stratified squamous nonkeratinized -oral cavity, esophagus, vagina
  6. stratified cuboidal -lining of some ducts (sweat)
  7. transitional (relaxed) -urinary bladder, ureters; F: expansion and recoil
  8. stratified squamous keratinized -skin
  9. stratified columnar -rare, lines salivary ducts, pharynx, lining of some ducts, urethra
  10. transitional (distended) -see #7

Glandular Epithelia

1. exocrine glands

2. endocrine glands

1. contain ducts

Types by secretion: serous, mucous, mixed

Types by structure: unicellular: goblet cells; multicellular: sheet or mixed glands

2. ductless, produces hormones, secretions go from gland through blood to where action occurs

Ex: thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pituitary gland, ovary, testis


How is Connective Tissue characterized

1. types of cells present, types of fibers, character of ground substance, special functions

--connective tissue is most abundant tissue

--supportive structure of body, not found on exposed surfaces of body

--cells in extracellular matrix, Ex: extracellular fiber-collagen, nonfibrous ground substance-collagen, tissue fluid


5 most common types of collagen

  1. skin, tendon, bone
  2. cartilage (gelatinous matrix)
  3. reticulate (main component of reticular fibers)
  4. basal lamina, epithelium-secreted layer of basement membrane
  5. hair and placenta

collagen- most abundant protein in mammals, 25-35% of whole-body protein content, fibroblast is most common cell that creates collagen



  1. interstitial
  2. stroma
  3. parenchyma
  4. adventitia
  5. serosa
  6. lumen
  1. synonym of extracellular/intracellular, relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but not body cavity
  2. framework of organ or gland usually made of connective tissue
  3. cells or tissue that fulfills its functional role
  4. outermost connective tissue covering of organ or vessel
  5. epithelial lining of body cavity, secretes lubricating fluid
  6. cavity of organ

Types of Connective Tissue

-where they are found

1. Connective Tissue Proper

A. Loose

  • Areolar -papillary layer of dermis, stroma of organs and glands, adventitia of blood vessels, serosal lining of peritoneal & pleural cavities; most abundant adult connective tissue, contains all connective tissue cell types
  • Adipose -little cytoplasmic structure, important in insulation & energy storage, each cell has globule of fat
  • Reticular -reticular fibers, stroma of nonmuscular visceral organs

B. Dense -fewer cells, more matrix

  • Regular -tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses; collagen or elastic fibers in ordered, parallel bundles
  • Irregular -dermis, nerve sheaths, capsules; randomly oriented collagen bundles, limited matrix
  • Elastic -protein elastin, allow distortion and passive return to shape

2. Fluid Connective tissuees

  • blood
  • lymph

3. Supporting connective tissues

  • cartilage
  • bone
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  1. reticular fibers
  2. melanocyte
  3. fixed macrophage
  4. plasma cell
  5. blood in vessel
  6. adipocytes
  7. ground substance
  8. mast cell - has granules that can release intracellular vesicles of histamine that cause inflammatory reaction
  9. elastic fibers - stretch and recoil
  10. free macrophage
  11. collagen fibers
  12. fibroblast
  13. mesenchymal cell
  14. lymphocyte
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for cartilages, list composition and location found

cartilage is a vascular (O2 reaches chondrocytes through diffusion)

  1. dense regular connective tissue
  2. dense irregular connective tissue
  3. elastic cartilage -cartilage with elastic fibers, flexible and tolerates distortion, external ear & larynx
  4. fibrocartilage -cartilage with collagen fibers; intervertebral discs, collagen fibers don't stretch as much
  5. hyaline cartilage -chondrocytes in collagenous matrix, costal cartilages & articular surfaces of joints -shock absorption
  6. elastic connective tissue - NOT elastic cartilage

Bone - functions

  1. support
  2. storage of minerals & lipids -calcium & phosphate, fat stored in yellow bone marrow
  3. Hemopoiesis -production of blood cells in red marrow,
  4. protection
  5. mechanical -muscle attachment, leverage

bone cells

bone cells highly vascular

  1. osteocytes -mature bone cells, regulate mineral and protein content, located in lacunae, connected by canaliculi
  2. osteoblasts -secrete organic components of bone matrix
  3. osteoprogenitor cells -precursor of osteoblasts, important in repair
  4. osteoclasts -break down bone to release Ca & P, multinucleate, work in balance with osteocyte

matrix of bone

--give weight percentage of bone parts

  • hydroxyapatite salt (Ca, P, CaCO3, Na, Mg, F-), 2/3 weight of bone, strong in compression-brittle on own)
  • collagen fibers -1/3 of weight, gives strength in tension
  • living cells only 2% of bone weight
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  1. interstitial lamellae
  2. concentric lamellae -circle lacunae
  3. circumferential lamellae
  4. osteons
  5. periosteum
  6. trabeculae of spongy bone

Haversian Systems

  • central canal with blood vessels surrounded by layered bone, osteocytes in lacunae connected by canaliculi
  • periosteum -surrounds bone, has cell layer with osteocytes and blastocytes; collagen fibers of tendon anchored to periosteum
  1. Periosteum
  2. Endosteum

1. fibrous layer over cellular layer

---cellular layer has osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and add bone matrix to surface, blood vessels and nerves run in cellular layer

---at epiphyses, periosteum merges with connective tissue to form joint capsule

2. endosteum is incomplete cellular layer of epithelial cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, & osteoprogenitor cells

--it is active in growth, repair, and remodeling

--no fibrous layer

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physis- growth


Intramembraneous ossification

--where does ossification begin

bones of skull, mandible, and clavicle

  • dermal (mesenchymal) cells replaced by osteoblasts
  • ossification begins at ossification center
  • grows as flat sheet of bone, expanding bone traps blood vessels, osteoblasts trapped in lacunae change to osteocytes
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intramembranous ossification

1. osteocytes

2. osteoblasts

3. mesenchymal cells

******Does the scapula form by intramembranous ossification even though it is a flat bone?



Endochondral ossification

  • blood vessels grow around edges of cartilage, when they get more O2, cells of perichondrium convert to osteoblasts, shaft of cartilage is encased in layer of bone, vessels penetrate cartilage
  • osteoblasts produce bone at primary ossification center (where diaphysis is formed)
  • bone formation spreads, osteoclasts take away bone to make cavity, osteoblasts seal themselves in cavity and become osteocytes
  • epiphysis comes from secondary ossification center, gives bone distinct shape

Apositional growth

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bone grows in diameter


Integument functions

  1. protection
  2. thermoregulation
  3. excretion
  4. synthesis & storage of lipid reserves
  5. synthesis of vitamin D3 -stimulated by UV light
  6. provides sensory information
  7. coordinates immune response to pathogens and cancers in skin
  8. specialized glands
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  1. dermis
  2. stratum basale -deepest layer attached to basal lamina, basal cells, melanocytes, merkel cells
  3. stratum spinosum -keratinocytes/some divide, Langerhans cells, melanocytes
  4. stratum granulosum -keratinocytes produce keratohyalin and keratin, keratin fibers develop, cells become thinner and flatter, cells die
  5. stratum lucidum -only in thick skin
  6. stratum corneum -water resistant not proof, dead keratinocytes
  7. surface layer

stratum basale vs basal lamina

  • basal almina is acellular foundation of epithelium
  • basal lamina is proteins secreted by stratum basale
  • basal lamina connects epithelium to connective tissue
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  1. keratinocyte
  2. melanin pigment in melanosome
  3. melanin pigment
  4. melanocyte
  5. basement membrane

-relative same # of melanocytes per person, stratum conreum does not retain pigment

-melanocyte exocytoses melanosomes to keratinocyte, lysosome attacks melanosome, melanin granules surround nuclei to protect

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1) epidermis

2) papillary layer of dermis -areolar connective tissue

3) reticular layer of dermis -dense irregular connective tissue, has reticular fibers, accesory structures usually anchored in this layer

4) subcutaneous layer/hypodermis -areolar & adipose tissue, lymphatic drainage, thermoregulation because of fat, blood supply and nervous interactions

  1. hair shaft -stratum basale goes all the way around into dermis
  2. tactile corpuscle -light touch
  3. sebaceous gland
  4. arrector pili muscle
  5. sweat gland duct -merocrine/eccrine
  6. hair follicle
  7. lamellated corpuscle -deep pressure
  8. nerve fibers
  9. sweat gland -thermoregulation, excretion, glands are epithelium
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  1. pectoralis major muscle
  2. pectoral fat pad
  3. suspensory ligaments
  4. glandular itssue
  5. lactiferous duct -regulated by oxytocin
  6. nipple
  7. areola
  8. lactiferous duct
  9. lactiferous sinus
  10. muscle cells in wall of duct
  11. epithelial milk-secreting cells (cuboidal)
  12. myoepithelial cells
  13. mammary gland lobule
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Aging and the Integumentary System

  1. fewer melanocytes: pale skin, reduce tolerance for sun exposure
  2. dry epidermis: reduction in sebaceous and sweat gland activity
  3. thin epidermis: slow repairs, decreased vit D, reduced number of Langerhans cells
  4. reduced sweat gland activity: overheat
  5. thin dermis: sagging and wrinkling due to fiber loss
  6. reduced blood supply: slow healing, reduced ability to lose heat
  7. changes in fat and hair distribution: due to reduced sex hormone levels
  8. fewer active follicles: thinner, sparse hairs

2 parts of skull

1. neurocranium -housing the brain

2. splanchocranium -part of skull associated with face


2 parts of skeleton

1. axial -skull, vertebral column, ribs & sternum

2. appendicular -upper & lower limbs, limb girdles





a nerve

the viscera

an organ; hollow tube

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  1. superior articular process
  2. lamina of vertebral arch
  3. intervertebral foramen
  4. intervertebral disc
  5. spinous process
  6. transverse process
  7. vertebral body
  8. inferior articular process
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  1. pedicle
  2. transverse process
  3. superior articular process
  4. spinous process
  5. inferior articular facet
  6. inferior articular process
  7. vertebral foramen
  8. spinous process
  9. superior articular process
  10. transverse process
  11. inferior articular facet
  12. vertebral foramen
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patella articulates with


--attaches to tibia but does not articulate

  1. femur
  2. patella
  3. tibia
  4. fibula
  5. interosseous membrane
  6. tibiofibular joint
  7. knee joint
  8. femoropatellar joint
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  1. lumbosacral joint
  2. sacroiliac joint
  3. hip joint
  4. pubic symphysis
  5. femur
  6. pubis
  7. sacrum
  8. ilium
  9. lumbar vertebra
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  1. extension
  2. flexion
  3. flexion
  4. extension
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  1. extension
  2. flexion
  3. extension
  4. flexion
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  1. abduction
  2. adduction
  3. abduction
  4. adduction
  5. medial rotation
  6. lateral rotation
  7. medial rotation
  8. lateral rotation
  9. elevation
  10. depression
  11. circumduction
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1. ulnar deviation (adduction)

2. radial deviation (abduction)

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1. supination

2. pronation

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1. eversion (toe on ground)

inversion (toe up)

2. dorsiflexion (toe up)

plantarflexion (toe down)

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1. lateral flexion

2. retraction

3. protraction


Three categories of joints

1. synarthrosis -immovable

  • suture -between bones of skull
  • gomphosis -teeth n sockets
  • synchondrosis -cartilaginous bridge (sternoclavicular joint)
  • synostosis -articulation fused to solid bone (acetabulum)

2. amphiarthrosis -slightly movable

  • syndesmosis -ligament connections between bones (between vertebrae, tibiofibular joint)
  • symphysis -bones connected by fibrocartilaginous pad (pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs,)

3. diarthrosis -freely movable, synovial

  • uniaxial -one plane (elbow, hinge joint; vertebrae, plane joint; atlas-axis, pivot joint)
  • biaxial -two planes (saddle joint)
  • polyaxial -three planes, ball and socket (glenohumeral joint)
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  1. capsule
  2. synovial membrane
  3. articular cartilage
  4. joint cavity
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  1. superior articular facet
  2. posterior longitudinal ligament
  3. interspinous ligament
  4. supraspinous ligament
  5. anterior longitudinal ligament
  6. nucleus pulposus
  7. anulus fibrosus
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  1. articular surface of mandibular fossa
  2. articular disc
  3. mandibular condyle
  4. articular capsule
  5. coronoid process

--temporomandibular joint works as hinge joint and gliding joint, can dislocate