Anatomy and Physiology 2, Exam 2

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blood vessels, immunology Caroline Evans
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1

Anti diuretic hormone acts on ___________, to retain water, which in turn ___________ blood volume and pressure

kidney, increase

2

Aldosterone acts on the kidney to retain ____________, which in turn __________ blood volume & pressure

salt, increase

3

this hormone initiates the signaling process when blood pressure is reduced to the kidney

renin

4

Anti-Diuretic Hormone is released by the _________.

pituitary gland

5

Aldosterone is released by the ___________.

adrenal gland

6

Angiotensin II is released by the ___________.

liver

7

Atrial Naturitic Peptide is released by the ___________.

atria of heart

8

Renin is released by the _____________.

kidney

9

Which hormones increase blood pressure by increasing blood volume?

aldosterone and anti-diuretic hormone

10

Which hormone decreases blood pressure by vasodilation?

atrial naturitic peptide

11

Increasing cardiac output (increases/decreases) mean arterial pressure

increases

- cardiac output is the amount of blood your heart pumps through the circulatory system in a minute

- when your heart is beating both faster and stronger cardiac output increases

-MAP is the average arterial pressure during a cardiac cycle. perfusion pressure seen by the organs in the body

12

if water is retained by the body, as in the case of vasopressin, blood pressure tends to

increases

13

if the heart is stimulated by epinephrine, a sympathetic hormone, blood vessel diameter(increases/decreases) in size.

decreases, because epinephrine increases vasoconstriction

14

if preload increases due to a decrease in compliance in large veins, blood pressure in the pulmonary circuit (increases/decreases)

increases, because force is increasing

15

Nitric Oxide (NO) is released constantly by endothelium in vessels; when released it causes diameter of the vessel to (increase/decrease)

increase

- NO is a vasodilator

16

impaired lung function due to hypo-ventilation causes a decrease in circulation oxygen, increase in carbon dioxide, and decrease in PH. These factors lead to activation of vessels by causing a(n) (increase/decrease) in blood pressure.

increase; sympathetic ANS stimulated

17

during inflammation, mast cells release histamine, which causes localized vessel changes that (increase/decrease) blood flow and (increase/decrease) blood pressure at the site of infection

increase, decrease

18

platelets are actively involved in blood clotting. During this process, they release thromboxane A2, which causes local vessel diameter to (increase/decrease) which causes blood flow at the site to (increase/decrease)

decrease (constrict), decrease

19

if there is an increase in inotropy, than there is an increase in stroke volume that leads to changes in cardiac output and subsequently (increase/decrease) blood pressure

increase

- inotropy is contractility

- stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected during cardiac muscle contraction

20

in chronic hypertension, there is a thickening of the artery wall which leads to a(n) (increase/decrease) in vessel diameter and a(n) (increase/decrease) in blood pressure

decrease, increase

21

Aorta, Common Carotid, Common Iliac, Pulmonary Trunk are examples; these vessels have thick tunica media with embedded elastin to enhance recoil to maintain blood pressure

(type of vessel)

large elastic artery

22

valves are present in this vessel which is primarily found within muscle groups or attached to peripheral organs; thin tunica media and thick tunica externa

(type of vessel)

medium vein

- only veins have valves

23

most abundant vessel type carrying oxygenated blood; contribute most to overall blood pressure and resistance by performing vasomotion; thick tunica media

(type of vessel)

resistance arteriole

24

allows leukocytes to emigrate from bloodstream into tissues;low pressure vessel carrying deoxygenated blood from capillary beds

(type of vessel)

venule

25

distributes oxygenated blood to specific organs and muscle groups, contains two distinct layers of elastin that surround the tunica media

medium muscular artery

26

vena cava, internal jugular, pulmonary veins, renal veins are examples;these vessels have thick tunica externa and rely on compression to pressurize and move blood

large vein

27

whic layer of the vessel contains areolar connective tissue?

tunica externa

28

in a vein, this layer of the wall is the thickest

tunica externa

- veins need a lot of connective tissue so that they don't roll around

29

the tunica intima consists of which tissue type?

simple squamous; endothelium

30

the tunica media consists of what tissue type

smooth muscle

31

the majority of the blood in the body is found in the...........

veins