BS Term V Quiz #1

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created 4 weeks ago by mromero163
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CVA, SCI, Women's Health
updated 3 weeks ago by mromero163
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1

Normal Values: Prothrombin

11-12.5 seconds

(Partial prothrombin time: 60-70 seconds)

2

Normal Values: Hematocrit

(Female vs Male)

Female: 37%-47%

Male: 42%-52%

3

Normal Values: Hemoglobin

(Female vs Male)

Female: 12-16g/ml

Male: 14-18 g/ml

4

Normal: RBC

(Female vs Male)

Female: 4.2-5.4 million/µl

Male: 4.7-6.1 million/µl

5

Normal WBC

5,000-10,000

6

Normal Platelets

150,000-450,000

7

Alert

Patient is awake and attentive to normal levels of stimulation. Interaction with therapist are normal and appropriate.

8

Lethargic

The patient appears drowsy and may fall asleep if not stimulated in some way. Interactions with the therapist may get diverted. Patient may have difficulty in focusing or maintaining attention on a question or task.

9

Obtunded

The patient is difficult to arouse from a somnolent state and is frequently confused when awake. Repeated stimulation is required to maintain consciousness. Interactions with the therapist may be largely unproductive.

10

Stupor (semicoma)

The patient responds only to strong, generally noxious stimuli and return to the unconscious state when stimulation is stopped. When aroused, the patient is unable to interact with the therapist.

11

Coma (deep coma)

The patient cannot be aroused by any type of stimulation, Reflex motor responses may or may not be seen.

12

Glasgow Coma Scale

- Gold Standard to document coma

(Eye opening, Best Motor Response, & Verbal Response)

13

Arousal

The state of readiness to accept and process sensory information

(Alert, Lethargic, Obtunded, Stupor, & Coma)

14

Attention

The ability to select and focus on one type of information exclusively.

Influences the ability to remember and learn

(Distractible, Impulsive, Hypersensitive, Decreased Attention Span)

15

Cognition

A factor of arousal and attention. The mental process by which knowledge is acquired.

16

Brunnstrom Stages of Recovery

1. Flaccidity

2. Spasticity

3. Increased Spasticity

4. Decreased Spasticity

5. Complex Movement Combinations

6. Spasticity Disappears

7. Normal Function

17

B12:

- Role

-Deficiency

- Necessary to produce RBC and prevent anemia

ST: Fatigue, weakness, nausea, constipation

LT: Anemia, numbness, tingling in hands and feet, balance, and memory problems, and depression

18

Early signs & symptoms of UTI

Fever, pain, burning when urinating, cloudy, bloody, foul-smelling urine

19

Most likely cause of lumbar SCI or issue:

Flexion Injury

20

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

- Progressive autoimmune disorder

- degeneration of motor neurons --> lost control of muscles --> body breakdown

21

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

- Rare Autoimmune disorder

- Demyelination of nerves

- immune system attaches healthy nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system, leading to weakness, numbness, tingling and can eventually cause paralysis

22

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)

- Genetic Disorder

- Characterized by muscle degeneration and weakness

- Caused by an absence of dystrophin (protein that helps keep muscle cells intact

23

Central Cord Syndrome

- Injury to cervical spine

- UE> LE symptoms

- Sacral motor sensory is still intact

- Injury to central corticospinal tract

24

Anterior Cord Syndrome

- Loss of motor power, pain, and temperature sensations

- Preservations of position, vibration, and touch sensation

- Caused by compression of anterior spinal artery --> ischemia

25

Brown- Sequard Syndrome

- Rare

- Characterized by a lesion in the spinal cord --> resulting in weakness or paralysis on ONE SIDE of the body and a loss of sensation on the OPPOSITE SIDE

26

Cauda Equina Syndrome

- Compression on the spinal nerve root

- Surgical emergency

- Gradual UNILATERAL Symptoms

- Lasting damage leading to incontinence and possibly permanent paralysis of the legs

- Flaccid paralysis, areflecic bowel and bladder, possibly sensory loss and complete paralysis

- Urinary retention presents later

27

Conus Medullaris Syndrome

- Surgical emergency

- Sudden & BILATERAL presentation

- Numbness tends to be more localized to perianal area

- Urinary retention tends to present early

28

Hyperosmotic Solution

Shrivelend cells

-Cell body shrinks for cell wall

29

Hypoosmotic Solution

Cells swell and eventually burst

- Normal turgid cell

30

Isomotic Solution

Normal Cells

- Flaccid cell

31

Babinski

- Elicitation

- (+) Response

- Stroking of lateral aspect of foot

- Extension of big toe & fanning of four small toes

(Normal in Newborns)

32

Hoffman

- Elicitation

- (+) Response

- "Flicking" of terminal phalanx of index, middle, and or ring finger

- Reflex flexion of distal phalanx of thumb and distal phalanx of index finger or middle finger (which ever was not "flicked")

33

Common Pudendal Nerve Entrapment site:

Alcock's Canal: B/w Sacrospinous and Sacrotuberous ligaments and/or the obturator interns muscle.

34

Contraindications for exercise during pregnancy:

1. Incompetent cervix

2. Pregnancy induced hypertension

3. Premature rupture of membrane

4. Pre-term Labor

5. Persistent bleeding in the 2nd/3rd trimester

6. Intrauterine growth retardation

7. Hemodynamically significant heart disease

8. Extreme under/overweight

9. Anemia

10. Sedentary lifestyle

11. Poor fetal growth

35

Preeclampsia is characterized by:

- High BP

- Swelling in hands and feet

- Protein in urine

- Severe headache

- Flashing lights in visual field

- Right-sided pain under rib cage

- Severe Heartburn

36

Eclampsia

- Seizures that occur during or after pregnancy with a woman who has preeclampsia

37

Signs & Symptoms of PE

- Dyspnea

- Abrupt onset of chest pain

- Cough

- Tachypnea

- Crackles

- Tachycardia

38

PE Presentation

- Syncope

- Hypotension

- Pulseless cardiac electrical activity

- Death

39

Gestational Diabetes

Insulin supply is inadequate to meet tissue demands for normal blood glucose regulation

(Hyperglycemia)

40

Cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder

41

Pyelonephritis

-Can be an infectious process involving the kidneys (Acute)

- Can be a chronic inflammatory disease involving the kidney parenchyma and renal pelvis (Chronic)

42

Kidney Stones

- Ureteral stones once that move into the ureter

43

STORCH Pneumonic

- Syphilis

- Toxoplasmosis

- Other Infections

- Rubella

- Cytomegalovirus

- Herpes

44

Syphilis

- STD

- 1˚ sores at original site of infection (typically genitals, anus or mouth)

- 2˚ Skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, and fever

- Latent: no signs or symptoms

- 3˚ ass. with severe medical problems, can affect brain and other organs of body

45

Toxoplasmosis

- Infection from a parasite, from eating uncooked meat, exposure to cat feces

46

Rubella

- spread by airborne respiratory secretions

- Neonates may look like a "blueberry muffin"

- Cataracts result when infection occurs between the 3-8 week of gestation

47

Cytomegalovirus

- Transmitted by human contact with infected secretions

- Herpes Type 5

48

Spinal Cord Shock: Time period

24-48 Hours