zoology exam 2

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 weeks ago by hikma
5 views
ch 9,12,13,14
updated 7 days ago by hikma
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

protoplasmic

unicellular organisms, protoplasm divided into organelles

2

cellular

division of labor among aggregated cells that are functionally different

3

cell-tissue

aggregations of similar cells into patterns or layers, specialized for a common function

4

tissue-organ

tissue combined with other types of tissue to form a structure with a more complex function then a single tissue

5

organ system

organs working together for a common higher function across the spatial and temporal dimension of the organism

6

spherical symmetry

any plane passing through the center divided the body into two equal halves

7

radical symmetry

the animal can be divided into similar halves by multiple planes passing through the longitudinal axis

8

bilateral symmetry

can be divided into to planes along a saggital axis into two mirrored portion

9

coel

any hollow or open space

10

acoelomate

mesoodermal cells completely fill blastocoel

11

Pseudocoelomate

mesodermal cells line outer edge of blastocoel, leaving two body cavities

12

Coelomate

mesodermal cells completely line the entire body cavity on all sides

13

Intracellular

within a cell

14

Extracellular

outside the cell

–Blood plasma: fluid portion of blood

–Interstitial fluid: tissue fluid, occupies space around cells

15

Histology

study of tissues

16

Epithelial Tissue

Covers outside of the body, lines organs & cavities within the body

17

Cells are closely joined by

tight junctions

18

Epithelial Tissue shape

cuboidal, columnar, squamous

19

epithelial tissue arrangement

simple, stratified, pseudostratified

20

6 major types of connective tissue in vertebrates

1.Loose connective tissue

2.Cartilage

3.Fibrous connective tissue

4.Adipose tissue

5.Blood

6.Bone

21

Three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein:

Collagenous fibers

Elastic fibers

22

Collagenous fibers

provide strength & flexibility

Made of collagen

Reticular fibers

23

Elastic fibers

stretch & snap back to their original length

Made of elastin, long threads

24

Reticular fibers

join connective tissue to adjacent tissues

Made of collagen, very thin & branched

25

Two major cell types found in connective tissue

Fibroblasts

Macrophages

26

Fibroblasts

secrete proteins of ECM fibers

27

Macrophages

engulf foreign particles, debris

28

Neurons

nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses

long extractions axons

29

Glial cells (glia)

help nourish, insulate, & replenish neurons

30

As length increases

volume increases more quickly than surface area

31

Larger animals have

less volume exposed

32

multi cellular Advantageous

Low surface area to volume ratio

Allows individual cells to be more efficient

33

Sponges are the “first”

multicellular animals

34

Animals sister to

choanoflagellate algae.

35

Sponges first group of

metazoans (animals) to branch off

36

choanocyte cells

card image

Possessed by choanoflagellates and sponges

37

Was the common ancestor of metazoans colonial?

Evidence for

“Prototype” multicellular organism

Similar cell communication mechanisms exist between choanoflagellates and sponges

38

Was the common ancestor of metazoans colonial?

Evidence against

Choanocytes only in adult sponges, not in the larval form

Not seen in other phylogenetic groups, lost or suppressed (this is not surprising)

39

Phylum Porifera

Sponges are amazing filters with few parts

40

Sponge structure

Spicules imbedded in spongin for support

41

Pinacoderm

incurrent pores on cells

42

Dermal ostia

incurrent pores for the sponge

43

Mesohyl

gelatinous extracellular matrix (sometimes called mesenchyme)

44

Archaeocytes

ameboid cells that move in the mesohyl

45

Sclerocytes

make spicules

46

Spongocytes

make spongin

47

Collencytes

make collagen

48

Lophocytes

make collagen

49

Pinacocytes

protective, sometimes contractile

50

Myocytes

arranged in circular bands around pores, regulate water flow through contraction

51

Mesohyl

Spongin, Spicules

52

Archaeocytes

ameboid cells

53

Choanocytes

“collar” cells

54

Body forms

card image

Asconoid

Syconoid

Leuconoid

55

Asexual

external or internal buds

gemmules

somatic embryogenesis

56

Sexual

mostly monoecious sponges

cross- or self-fertilize

parenchymula – free swimming larvae

57

Calcarea

card image

Puts the flagellated cells on the outside

58

Advantages of asexual reproduction

No dilution of gene pool, offspring are all you

59

Advantages of asexual reproduction

Clones favored in stable environments

60

Advantages of asexual reproduction

All of your population is reproductive

61

Advantages of asexual reproduction

Offspring are often more robust

62

Disadvantages of asexual reproduction

Offspring often do not disperse long distances

63

Disadvantages of asexual reproduction

Everyone is the same

Not favored in environments that change

64

Disadvantages of asexual reproduction

Muller’s ratchet

You accumulate negative mutations over time

Can lead to a less fit population

65

Advantages of sexual reproduction

Offspring are usually good at dispersing

Packaged well

66

Disadvantages of sexual reproduction

Not all of your population is reproductive

67

Disadvantages of sexual reproduction

Offspring are often more fragile

68

Disadvantages of sexual reproduction

Diluted gene pool for all individuals

69

Disadvantages of sexual reproduction

Most reproductive effort is wasted

70

Class Calcarea

card image

small calcareous sponges

Calcium carbonate spicules

71

Class Hexactinellida

card image

siliceous

Glass sponges

72

Class Demospongiae

card image

95% of species

All leuconoid, all shapes

Contain the only freshwater sponges

73

Phylum Placozoa

card image

Named for the Greek roots plakos (tablet) and zoon (animal)

ONE species – monotypic family and genus

74

Cnidarians have nematocysts

card image

specialized organelles that require slight stimulation to fire a chemical projectile containing toxin

75

Phylum Cnidaria

All possess cnidocytes which have cnidae (an organelle responsible for stinging)

76

Nematocysts are a type of

cnidocyte. Fastest animal motion recorded

77

Mutualism

both individuals benefit

78

Commensalism

one individual benefits, one experiences no effect

79

Parasitism

one individual benefits, the other experiences a loss

80

Cnidocytes characteristics

card image

nematocysts

81

Cnidocytes characteristics

radially or biradially symmetrical

82

Cnidocytes characteristics

have polyps and medusae

83

Cnidocytes characteristics

diploblatic with mesoglea

84

Cnidocytes characteristics

extaarcellular digestion

85

Cnidocytes characteristics

no coelomic or repiratory system

86

Cnidarians have two distinct life stages

polyps, medusae

87

Polyp

sessile, most corals

88

medusa

mobile, jellyfish

an unattatched polyp

89

polyps

card image

reproduce asexually

budding, fission, pedal laceration

90

medusa

card image

tetramerous symmetry( body parts in four)

statocysts for orientation and ocelli for light reception

91

Anthozoans branch off

before medusa evolves

92

Mesoglea

card image

covers body, thickest in stalk, thinnest in tentacles

The “jelly” in a jellyfish

93

cnidocytes

card image

unique type of phylum

94

manubrium

end of "mouth" or mouth tube calledd a manubrium

95

class hydrozoa

card image
96

Hydrorhiza

base like a rootlike stolon

97

Hyrocauli

stalks, cellular part called the coenosarc, covering called the perisarc

98

Velum

margin of the bell that projects inward

99

Entocodon

a developmental layer, from ectoderm, unique to Hydrozoa. Differentiates into muscles.

100

Epitheliomuscular (EM) cells

for covering and contraction

101

Interstitial cells

undifferentiated stem cells, make everything but EM cells

102

Gland cells

secrete the adhesive that allows the Hydra to attach, found around the foot

103

Cnidocytes

through the whole epidermis

104

Sensory cells

in the epidermis, have synapse on one end and a flagellum on the other

105

Nerve cells

BOTH one way and two way

106

Physalia

man o'war

107

Pneumatophore

(sail) for floatation

108

Dactylozooids

fishing tentacles

109

Gonozooids or gonophores

sacs containing empty space and ovaries or testes

110

Class Scyphozoa

  • Most of the jellyfish.
  • No velum, margin of umbrella scalloped with lappets (notches). Rhopalia (sensory centers) between the lappets.
  • Possess a nerve net.
  • Lots of nematocysts for prey capture.
111

aurelia

card image
112

Strobilation

the process by which Aurelia makes saucerlike buds called ephyrae and becomes a strobila.

113

cassiopeia

card image

upside down jellyfish

  • No tentacles on umbrella margin
  • Highly branched mouth
  • Characteristic oral arm structure
  • Frilly oral arms filter feed
  • Also contain energy producing symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae)
114

class staurozoa

card image
  • No medusa phase
  • Polyp body is stalked
  • Eight arms
  • Nonswimming planula develops directly into a polyp.
115

class cubozoa

  • Medusa predominant
  • Base of each tentacle flattened, called a pedalium
  • Rhopalia present, each with six eyes
  • Subumbrella edge turns inward to form a velarium
116

chironex

card image

sea wasp

117

class anthozoa

card image

“Flower animals” – polyps with a flowerlike appearance

118

Hexacorallia or Zoantharia

anemones, hard corals

119

Ceriantipatharia

tube anemones and thorny corals

120

Octocorallia

soft and horny corals (sorry, only thinks of you as a friend), sea fans

121

Mesoglea is a

mesenchyme containing ameboid cells

122

Order Actinaria

card image

sea anemones

  • Generally large polyps, cylindrical in form
  • Crown of tentacles around an oral disc
  • Mouth is slit shaped, leads to pharynx
  • Siphonoglyphs are slits leading into pharynx to create water flow
  • Pharynx leads to gastrovascular cavity with six chambers (mesenteries)
  • Carnivorous
123

Hexacorallian corals

card image

Order Scleractinia

  • Living tissue covering the hard skeleton

–Gastrovascular cavities of each polyp connected

124

diploblastic

two tissue layers

125

triploblastic

three tissue layers

126

Protostomia

(blastopore forms mouth)

127

Deuterostomia

(blastopore forms anus)

128

Acoelomorpha characteristics

card image

Small, flat worms (not flatworms)

Most live in marine sediments, a few pelagic

129

Phylum Platyhelminthes

card image

Real flatworms

From the Greek platys (flat) and helmins (worm)

Free living or parasitic

130

Turbellarians

Cellular, ciliated epidermis

Rhabdites – rod shaped, fill with water for protection

Dual gland adhesive organs

131

Parasitic flatworms

Syncytial tegument as a covering

Many nuclei in a single cell membrane

Resistant to the immune system of the host

132

Most parasitic forms have no digestive system

Rely on host to break down food

Many have blind ended intestine

133

Protonephridia

the simple waste excretion and osmoregulation organ

134

Ocelli

photosensitive eyespots

135

Asexual (great regenerators)

Fission

Fragmentation

136

Sexual

Most monoecious but cross fertilizing

Most have free swimming larvae

137

class trubellaria

card image

Mostly free living worms

Creep along that use muscles and cilia to move

138

Class Trematoda (Subclass Digenea)

all parasitic flukes

adults have digestive, respiratory, circulatory, urinary, reproductive

139

Digenean reproduction - Clonorchis

shelled embryo or larvae excreted to water

140

miracidium

free swimming larvae

141

sporocyts

penetratess tissue of a mollusc and encysts

142

clonorchis

human liver flukes

143

Digenean reproduction - Schistosoma

eggs discharged in human waste

144

swimmer's itch

north american natural lakes

normal hosts are birds

bore into humans by mistake

145

paragonimus

lung fluke

eggs coughed out of lungs, swallowed, eliminated through feces

you eat under cooked crab

146

classs cestoda

tapeworms

no digestive system

147

phylum mesozoa

the missing like between protozoa and metazoa with two group rhombozoans, orthonectide

148

Rhombozoans

card image

Cephalopod mollusc kidney parasites, life cycle: vermiform adults asexually make larvae that grow and sexually reproduce under crowded conditions. Larvae shed in host urine into water.

149

Orthonectids

card image

Invertebrate parasites, life cycle: sexual and asexual phases, asexual phase known as a plasmodium, divides to form distinct males and females

150

phylum nemertea

card image

ribbon worms

151

Name the five levels of organization in organismal complexity and explain how each successive level is more complex than the one preceding it.

protoplasm

cellular

cell tissue

tissue-organ

organ-system

152

Can you suggest why, during the evolutionary history of animals, there has been a tendency for maximum body size to increase? Do you think it inevitable that complexity should increase along with body size? Why or why not?

the large animal has less surface area

to develop internal transport to move nutrients, gasses and waste products between the cells and external environment

153

What is the meaning of the terms “parenchyma” and “stroma” as they
relate to body organs?

card image
154

Body fluids of eumetazoan animals are separated into fluid “compartments.”Name these compartments and explain how compartmentalization may differ in animals with open and closed circulatory systems.

card image
155

What are the four major types of tissues in the body of a metazoan?

card image
156

How would you distinguish between simple and stratified epithelium? What characteristic of stratified epithelium might explain why it, rather than simple epithelium, is found lining the oral cavity, esophagus, and vagina?

card image
157

What are three different kinds of muscle found among animals? Explain how each is specialized for particular functions

card image
158

unicelluar

protozoa

159

cell aggregate

sponge

160

blind sac, acoelomate

flateworm

161

tube within a tube, pseudocoelmate

nematode

162

tube within a tube, eucoelmate

vertebrate

163

Give eight characteristics of sponges

card image
164

What sponge body type is most efficient and makes possible the largest body size?

card image
165

What material is found in the skeleton of all sponges?

card image
166

What is a gemmule?

card image
167

Explain the selective advantage of radial symmetry for sessile and
free-floating animals

card image
168

What characteristics of phylum Cnidaria are most important in
distinguishing it from other phyla?

card image
169

Spongebob Squarepants

Phylum Porifera

170

Patrick Star

Phylum Echinodermata

171

Squidward Tentacles

Phylum Mollusca

172

Mr. Krabs

Phylum Arthropoda

173

Sandy Cheeks

Phylum Chordata

174

6 one of the main difference between sharks and rays are

a) sharks have a single gill opening while rays have many

b) the protical fins are attached to the head of the rays, but no the sharks

c) the protical fins are attached to the head of the sharks, but no the rays

d) rays have a single gill opening while sharks have many

b

175

8 the first chondrichthyans show up in the fossil record around the

a) permian/triassic

b) triassic/ jurassic

c) camrian/ tertiary

d) silurian/ devonian

c

176

9 true or false the first chondrichthyians show all the chordate features

a) true

b)

b

177

10 frogs are in the order

a) vertebrate

b) anura

c) caudata

d) gymnophiona

e) reptilia

b

178

11 human are in the class

a) apeidae

b) vertabrate

c) reptilia

d) mammalia

d

179

13 phayrngeal gill slits orginally evolved for what purpose

a) filter feeding

b) for anchoring

c) respiration

d) hearing

A

180

14) true or false: a chordata must posses all five chordata characteristic for their entire life cycle

a) true

b) false

A

181

16) true or false: urochordata are phylogenetically the most basal taxon within chordata

a) true

b) false

A

182

20 phylogenetically, all tetrapods are in which group

a) reptilia

b) actinopterygii

c) amphibia

d) mammalia

e) sarcopterygii

E

183

21 what are the five chordate characteristics

a) dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharynegeal gill cord, preanel tail, endostyle vertebral column

b) notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, midbody gill slits, thyroids gland, endostyle

c) notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharynegeal gill slits, postanal tails, endostyle

d) notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, spinal cord, pharynegeal gill slits, postanal tails

e) spinal cord, vertebral column, endostyle, postanal tail, dorsal hollow nerve cord

C

184

26 the sea lamprey has an ______ life cycle

a) sea going

b) terrestrial

c) aerial

d) catadromous

e) anadromous

E

185

27 i show you a slimy animal that lays eggs and has parental care. it also looks like a weird worm. What group is it in

a) reptilia

b) gymnosphiona

c) placentilia

d) caudata

e) amphibian

B

186

32 the muscle segment in the vertabrates are __ shaped

a) o

b) v

c) y

B

187

35 many salamanders are neotenic, what does that mean

a) they completely change their diet while still in the water

b) they remain larval characteristics in their adult form

c) the metamorphose to eat totally diffrerent prey

d) they never metamorphose but move out on land

e) they metamorphose into their adult form, but remain in the water

B

188

39 hemichordates part of the phylum chordata, but then we relized____

a)they exhibit all four characteristics , but the evolutionary origins of some of these are not homogous to throw of chordata

b) their gill slits do not actually lead to true gills

c) scientists like to have job security so they split up groups and make new names

d) their stomochord is not homologous to a chordate notochord

e) their larval stage is very similar to starfish larvae

D

189

40 in the youtube video about nuskippers, what were the two males doing

a) watching for predators

b) eating

c) fighting

d) being friends

e) not being fish

C

190

41 true or false: some caecilians have extensive parental care

a)true

b)flase

A

191

42 true or false: parts of the notochord become the vertebral colum in the chordate

a) true

b) false

A

192

43 haikouella was not a vertebrate because it lacked a

a) ossicle

b) cranium

c) notochord

d) foot

B

193

44 the term fish is a horrible term. why

a) some fish are more like amphibians than other fish

b) what we call fish represent a very paraphyletic group

c) what we call fish represent a good clade

d) what we call fish have a highly varient life history strategies

e) fish are monophyletic

c

194

46 with which two phyla do hemichordates share characters?

a) annelida and enchiodermata

b) chordata and arthropoda

c) annelida and arthropoda

d) chordata and echinodermata

e) chordata and annelida

d

195

47 from the group listed, the one with the least described species is

a) anura

b) mammalia

c) urochordata

d) lepidosauria

e) actinopterygii

c

196

48 in the video of the shark hunting while people were fishing what was the prey

a) mudskippers

b) rays

c) tarpon

d) salmon

e) humans

c

197

49 which of the birds listed below which was the dodo most closely related to

a) ostritch

b) pigeon

c) sparrow

d) penguin

e) hawk

b

198

50 true or false: some urochordates are colonial

a) true

b) false

b

199

in which group of molluscus have secondary gills developed in some species

A) cephalopoda

B) bivalvia

C) opisthobranchia

D) pulmonata

E) prosobranchia

a

200

if I show you a small wormlike animal with a pedal groove it is proably in which group

A) gastropoda

B) solengastres

C) gastrotricha

D) phoronida

E) caudofoveatea

b

201

what is true about mesozoans

A) most have 20-30 cells and are arranged in three layers

B) most have 20-30 cells

C) most have many cells and have three tissue layers

D) no living representation of this phylum exist today

E) most are human parasites

b

202

they phylum that represent the missing link between protozoans and metazoans is the ___

A) mesozoa

B) vertebrate

C) plathyhelminthes

D) mollusca

E) chrodata

a

203

which group of bivalve molluscs can "swim"

A) limpets

B) clams

C) scallops

D) octopus

E) mussels

c

204

The process by which some molluscs twist their body to fit inside a shell is called

A) detorsion

B) uncoiling

C) torsion

D) coiling

E) twisting

c

205

which group of molluscs has the most species

A) caudofoveata

B) gastropoda

C) bivalvia

D) cephalopoda

E) entoprocta

b

206

in members of the phylum gastrotricha, protonephridia are equipped with

A) cilia

B) soleonocytes

C) kidneys

D) flame cells

E) metanephridia

b

207

the greek word podas means what

A) animals

B) snails

C) foot

D) pod

E) head

c

208

the cuticle of nematode is mostly made of

A) elastic

B) collagen

C) calcium carbonate

D) living cells

E) chitin

b

209

what is one hypothesis regarding the adaptive value of the early evolution of the coelom

A) it act as a reservoir for gametes so they can be released in discrete events

B) it provides a space for organs to move

C) it acts as a hardstatic skeleton

D) it acts as an exoskeleton

E) it acts as an endoskeleton

c

210

namatodes

A) have circular muscles only

B) have circular and longitudinal muscles

C) are pseudocoelmate

D) are acoeleomate

E) posses a true coelm

c

211

what best describes a newly hatched earthworm

A) a minature adult earthworm

B) a small unsegmented earthworm

C) a leechlike wormlike animal with a very hard cuticle

D) a small wormlike animal with a very hard cuticle

E) a small wormlike animal with legs

a

212

gonads in oligochaetes are typically

A) nonexistent

B) temporary

C) permanent in adults only

D) identical in males and females

E) permanent

e

213

echiurans have

A) gas exchange through lungs

B) a ciliated groove leading into the mouth

C) lots of legs and arms

D) an incomplete digestive tract

E) gas exhange through diffusion across the outer body surface

e

214

the annelid group with the fewest setae is the

A) oligochaeta

B) polychaeta

C) gastropoda

D) crustacea

E) hirundinea

e

215

which group of phyla do onycophorans share many characteristic with

A) mollusca and arthropoda

B) annelida and mollusca

C) annelida and arthropoda

D) nematoda and arthropoda

E) nematoda and mollusca

c

216

in the sipunculans

A) circulatory and respiratory system are lacking

B) circulatory and repiratory system and both present

C) taxonomy is not well resolved because of homoglous body structure shared with echiurans

D) a respiratory but not a circulatory system is present

E) a circulatory but not a repiratory system is present

a

217

nematodes often do not posses cellular pathways for aerobic respiration.WHAT WAS THE REASON!

A) most species are predatory and get oxygen from their food

B) complete cellular respiration doesn't require oxygen ever

C) all species exist in habitats without access to oxygen

D) all species are parasitic at some point in their life

E) they are allergic to carbon dioxide

d

218

there is a species that only feed on onycophoorans

A) lizard

B) snake

C) worms

D) fish

E) mouse

b

219

which group is dominate arthropod group in marine environment

A) crustacea

B) echinoidea

C) insecta

D) asteroidea

E) hemichordata

a

220

what is the productive segement of an annelid called

A) the clitellum

B) the pygidium

C) the opisthosoma

D) the cuticle

E) the prosoma

a

221

namatodes have sensory organs

A) cercariae

B) spines

C) plasmids

D) ommatids

E) amphids

e

222

which class of annelids used to be called the pogonophora

A) siboglinidea

B) hirundinea

C) polychaeta

D) mollusca

E) oligochaeta

a

223

members of the phylum nematrophora are often called

A) pinworms

B) nematodes

C) shoestring wroms

D) horsechair worms

E) fishing worms

d

224

which representative group of polychaetes from the book sometimes eats cnidarians and uses their nematocyts

A) nudibranchs

B) nereis

C) leeches

D) fireworms

E) tubeworms

a

225

the most obvious external characteristic of a member of the phylum kinorhyncha is the

A) spines

B) adhesive tubes

C) nephridia

D) clitellum

E) excretory structures

a

226

ascaris is a genus that is commonly parasitic on humans. how do most people get infected

A) by eating juvenile worms

B) by being bitten by a pig

C) by eating live eggs from the environment

D) by eating an adult worm

E) by being bitten by an infected mosquito

c

227

the structure found in the intestine of an oligochaete to increase surface area for absorption is called

A) caecum

B) prostomium

C) typhlsole

D) clitellum

E) gizzard

c

228

members of the phylum nematophora are usually

A) free living as juveniles but parasitic on arthropods as adults

B) free living as juveniles but prasitic on verterates as adults

C) parasitic on molluscs

D) parasitic on vertebrates as juveniles but free living as adults

E) parasitic on arthropods as juveniles but free living as adults

e

229

if I told you fertilization occurred by hypodermic insemination what group of annelids would I be talking about

A) hirundinea

B) pogonophora

C) oligochaeta

D) polychaeta

E) siboglinidea

d

230

you see a polychate larva. you are smart so you say to your friends hey come check out this

A) tadpole

B) trochophore

C) veliger

D) nonexistent creature

E) baby worm

b

231

in the youtube video about medical leeches what did they coat the leech with to make it spit up its blood meal

A) naan

B) salt

C) turmeric

D) tandoori spice

E) oregano

b

232

which group is named for male genitalia

A) oligochaeta

B) onycophora

C) nematoda

D) priapulida

E) mollusca

d

233

the larval stage of a loriciferan is called a

A) simpsons larvae

B) higgins larvae

C) wiggums larvae

D) mangold larvae

E) darwin larvae

b

234

if i show you a translucent 5 cm long thin animal with chitons spines around its head what phylum is it a member of

A) chaetognatha

B) echinodermata

C) arthropada

D) choradata

E) hemichordata

a

235

which group of echinoderms regenrates when part of the central disc remains

A) opheroidia

B) asteroidea

C) crinoidea

D) holothuroidea

E) echinoidea

a

236

what are the canal like grooves or the region containing these grooves found on my echinoderm called

A) tertiary

B) pluteal

C) coelomic

D) hemocoelmic

E) ambulacrl

e

237

true or false cepahahlochordates show all the chordate characteristics

A) true

B) false

a