RTAD 121 Ch. 6 Physical Principles Part 2 Key Terms

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Physical principles
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1

Partial pressure

The pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture is called a partial pressure

2

Dalton's Law

the relationship between the partial pressure and the total pressure in a gas mixture

3

Fractional concentration

The percentage of a gas in a mixture usually expressed in decimal form

4

FIO2

Fraction of inspired oxygen

5

PIO2

Pressure of inspired oxygen

6

Hyperbaric pressures

Pressures above atmospheric

occur naturally under water

Clinically used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning, diving

7

PAO2

Alveolar pressure of oxygen

8

Henry's Law

at a given temperature the volume of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is equal to the solubility coefficient times the partial pressure

Predicts how much gas can dissolve in a liquid at a given temperature

(Heat/temp/volume)

9

Solubility

ability of gas to dissolve in a liquid

10

Boyle's Law(Pressure and volume)

Pressure and volume of gas system will vary inversely(opposite each other)

mass and temperature constant

clinical application breathing

O2 stored cylinders (more pressure decreases volume)

(Vice president)

11

Charles Law(Temp/volume of gas)

Temp and volume of gas vary directly

mass and pressure are constant

hot air balloon ,correction for ATPS to BTPS

(charles watches TV)

12

Gay Lussac's Law

Pressure and temperature of a gas system varies directly

Volume and mass are constant

Increased pressure in a cylinder when heated

correction for blood gases/pt temp

Lussac uses toilet paper(TP)

13

Critical Temperature

Highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid

above this temp kinetic activity of the molecules will not allow the substance to remain in the liquid state(so it would become gas)

14

Critical pressure

The pressure needed to maintain equilibrium between liquid and gas phase of a substance at its critical temp

combined with critical temp=critical point

15

Flow

The bulk movement of a substance through space

fluid in motion

property exerted by both liquids and gases

16

Pneumotachometer

a flow tube with a known and constant resistance(measures air flow)

17

Pouiseuille's Law

The difference in pressure required to produce a given flow, under conditions of laminar flow through a smooth tube of fixed size

18

Bernouilli's Effect

Fluid flows through a tube of uniform diameter, pressure decreases progressively over the tube length

19

Fluid entrainment

...