Campbell Biology: ch6 Flashcards

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 6
updated 3 years ago by isabella
science, life sciences, biology
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1) The smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with a standard (not super- resolution) research-grade light microscope is a _____.
A) mitochondrion
B) microtubule

C) ribosome
D) microfilament



2) The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that _____.
A) light microscopy provides for higher magnification than electron microscopy

B) light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than electron microscopy C) light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells
D) light microscopy provides higher contrast than electron microscopy



3) In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is the _____.
A) relative solubility of the component
B) size and weight of the component
C) percentage of carbohydrates in the component
D) presence or absence of lipids in the component



5) What technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division?
A) standard light microscopy
B) scanning electron microscopy

C) transmission electron microscopy



7) All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT _____.

A) a cell wall
B) a plasma membrane
C) ribosomes

D) an endoplasmic reticulum



8) Cell size is limited by _____.
A) the number of proteins within the plasma membrane

B) the surface area of mitochondria in the cytoplasm

C) surface to volume ratios
D) the size of the endomembrane system



9) Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

A) Prokaryotes have cells while eukaryotes do not.
B) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.
C) Prokaryotes are not able to carry out aerobic respiration, relying instead on anaerobic metabolism.

D) Prokaryotes are generally larger than eukaryotes.



10) You have a cube of modeling clay in your hands. Which of the following changes to the shape of this cube of clay will decrease its surface area relative to its volume?
A) Pinch the edges of the cube into small folds.
B) Flatten the cube into a pancake shape.

C) Round the clay up into a sphere.
D) Stretch the cube into a long, shoebox shape.



11) Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?

A) Bacteria and Eukarya
B) Bacteria and Archaea
C) Archaea and Protista

D) Bacteria and Protista



12) Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?

A) chloroplast
B) central vacuole
C) mitochondrion

D) centriole



13) Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?

A) mitochondrion
B) ribosome
C) chloroplast




14) In a bacterium, we will find DNA in _____.

A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus
B) mitochondria
C) the nucleoid

D) ribosomes



15) Which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells?

A) mitochondria
B) microtubules
C) centrosomes

D) peroxisomes



16) What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in eukaryotes?
A) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into and out of the nucleus.
B) It synthesizes the proteins required to copy DNA and make mRNA.
C) It selectively transports molecules out of the nucleus, but prevents all inbound molecules from entering the nucleus.
D) It assembles ribosomes from raw materials that are synthesized in the nucleus.



17) Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane?
B) amino acids

D) phospholipids



18) Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?
A) Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because they lack an endomembrane system.
B) The mechanism of protein secretion in prokaryotes is probably the same as that in eukaryotes.

C) Proteins secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.

D) Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because they lack ribosomes.



19) Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
A) lipids
B) glycogen

C) proteins
D) nucleic acids



21) A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely _____.

A) primarily producing proteins for secretion
B) primarily producing proteins in the cytosol
C) constructing an extensive cell wall or extracellular matrix

D) enlarging its vacuole



22) Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?

A) lysosome
B) vacuole
C) Golgi apparatus

D) peroxisome



23) A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____.

A) play a role in storage
B) synthesize large quantities of lipids
C) actively export protein molecules

D) import and export protein molecules



24) Which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system?

A) nuclear envelope
B) chloroplast
C) Golgi apparatus

D) plasma membrane



27) Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

A) rough ER
B) plasmodesmata
C) Golgi vesicles

D) free cytoplasmic ribosomes



29) The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?
A) rough ER
B) smooth ER

C) Golgi apparatus
D) nuclear envelope



30) Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?

A) lysosome
B) mitochondrion
C) Golgi apparatus

D) peroxisome



31) What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A) ER → Golgi → nucleus
B) Golgi → ER → lysosome

C) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
D) ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane



32) Asbestos is a material that was once used extensively in construction. One risk from working in a building that contains asbestos is the development of asbestosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Cells will phagocytize asbestos, but are not able to degrade it. As a result, asbestos fibers accumulate in _____.

A) mitochondria
B) ribosomes
C) peroxisomes
D) lysosomes



33) Which of the following is NOT true? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _____.

A) have their own DNA
B) have multiple membranes
C) are part of the endomembrane system

D) are capable of reproducing themselves



34) Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?

A) lysosome
B) mitochondrion
C) Golgi apparatus

D) peroxisome



35) Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in _____.

A) chloroplasts
B) mitochondria
C) lysosomes

D) nuclei



36) In a plant cell, DNA may be found _____.
A) only in the nucleus
B) only in the nucleus and chloroplasts
C) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
D) in the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes



37) In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and _____.
A) combine the hydrogen with water molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide
B) use the hydrogen to break down hydrogen peroxide

C) transfer the hydrogen to the mitochondria
D) transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide



38) The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved _____.
A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell—the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
B) anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen—the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts
C) an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolving into the nucleus
D) acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi



39) Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
A) in the extracellular matrix
B) in the Golgi apparatus

C) in mitochondria
D) in the nucleolus



40) Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from _____.
A) a bacterium
B) an animal but not a plant

C) nearly any eukaryotic organism
D) a plant but not an animal



41) Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the _____.
A) mitochondria
B) peroxisomes

C) lysosomes
D) endoplasmic reticulum



42) Suppose a young boy is always tired and fatigued, suffering from a metabolic disease. Which of the following organelles is most likely involved in this disease?
A) lysosomes
B) Golgi apparatus

C) ribosomes
D) mitochondria



43) Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
A) membrane proteins of the inner nuclear envelope
B) free ribosomes and ribosomes attached to the ER

C) components of the cytoskeleton
D) cellulose fibers in the cell wall



45) Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine would be unable to _____.
A) form cleavage furrows during cell division
B) migrate by amoeboid movement

C) separate chromosomes during cell division

D) maintain the shape of the nucleus



46) Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves _____.
A) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane
B) setting up microtubule extensions that vesicles can follow in the movement of cytoplasm

C) reinforcing the pseudopod with intermediate filaments
D) cytoplasmic streaming



49) Spherocytosis is a human blood disorder associated with a defective cytoskeletal protein in the red blood cells (RBCs). What do you suspect is the consequence of such a defect?
A) abnormally shaped RBCs
B) an insufficient supply of ATP in the RBCs

C) an insufficient supply of oxygen-transporting proteins in the RBCs

D) adherence of RBCs to blood vessel walls, causing plaque formation



50) Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to _____.
A) divide in two
B) contract muscle fibers

C) extend pseudopodia
D) move vesicles within a cell



51) Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?

A) tubulin
B) laminin
C) actin

D) intermediate filaments



52) Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
A) The cytoskeleton of eukaryotes is a static structure most resembling scaffolding used at construction sites.
B) Although microtubules are common within a cell, actin filaments are rarely found outside of the nucleus.
C) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.
D) Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would have little effect on a cell's response to external stimuli.



53) The cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma membrane. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all of these extracellular structures?
A) They must block water and small molecules to regulate the exchange of matter and energy with their environment.

B) They must provide a rigid structure that maintains an appropriate ratio of cell surface area to volume.
C) They are constructed of polymers that are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported out of the cell.

D) They are composed of a mixture of lipids and nucleotides.



54) A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its _____.
A) nuclear matrix and extracellular matrix
B) mitochondria and Golgi apparatus

C) Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix

D) nuclear pores and secretory vesicles



56) Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?
A) desmosomes
B) gap junctions

C) extracellular matrix
D) tight junctions



57) Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through _____.
A) plasmodesmata
B) tight junctions

C) desmosomes
D) gap junctions



58) In plant cells, the middle lamella _____.
A) allows adjacent cells to adhere to one another
B) prevents dehydration of adjacent cells
C) maintains the plant's circulatory system
D) allows for gas and nutrient exchange among adjacent cells



59) Where would you expect to find tight junctions?
A) in the epithelium of an animal's stomach
B) between the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the rough endoplasmic reticulum

C) between plant cells in a woody plant
D) in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes



61) Gaucher disease is the most common of lipid storage diseases in humans. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme necessary for lipid metabolism. This leads to a collection of fatty material in organs of the body including the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow.

Using your knowledge of the structure of eukaryotic cells, identify the statement below that best explains how internal membranes and the organelles of cells would be involved in Gaucher disease.
A) The mitochondria are most likely defective and do not produce adequate amounts of ATP needed for cellular respiration.

B) The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains too many ribosomes which results in an overproduction of the enzyme involved in carbohydrate catalysis.
C) The lysosomes lack sufficient amounts of enzymes necessary for the metabolism of lipids.

D) The Golgi apparatus produces vesicles with faulty membranes that leak their contents into the cytoplasm of the cell.