Endocrine System Chapter 18 Flashcards


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1

The nervous system does NOT...

Function independently of the endocrine system

2

Endocrine cells

release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.

3

____ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.

Hormones

4

A hormone might...

alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.

5

Hormones known as "catecholamines" are

derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine

6

Peptide hormones are

composed of amino acids

7

A kinase is an enzyme that performs

phosphorylation

8

Calcium ions serve a messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein

calmodulin

9

Why is it that steroid hormones use receptors inside of target cells, whereas protein, peptide, and amino acid hormones do not?

Steroids are lipids and the membrane is lipid.

10

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an _____ organ.

endocrine

11

A simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone.

one

12

What substance activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?

cyclic AMP

13

Steroid hormones are NOT ______

produced by the suprarenal medulla.

14

What is not a hormone that is an amino acid derivative?

Testosterone

15

Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?

catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

16

Steroid hormones

bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.

17

When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the _____.

second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

18

The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually ____.

a G protein.

19

When adenyl cyclase is activated_____.

ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

20

After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,

gene transcription is initiated.

21

The most complex endocrine system responses involve the_____.

hypothalmus.

22

Which hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors?

insulin and epinephrine

23

All target cells

have hormone receptors

24

If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which hormone could no longer stimulate release of glucose?

glucagon

25

Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of

cAMP

26

Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?

loss of ADH secretion

27

The primary function of ADH is to

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.

28

If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?

TSH, ACTH, PRL

29

Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

ADH

30

The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by...

secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.

31

Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture....

ADH and oxytocin

32

The main action of the antidiuretic (ADH) hormone is

increased water conservation by kidneys.

33

Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause____?

gigantism

34

Which hormone may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?

growth hormone

35

The posterior pituitary gland secretes ___.

ADH

36

The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis duuring early childhood is ____.

MSH

37

Which hormone is NOT produced by the pars distalis the adenohypophysis?

oxytocin

38

Growth hormone does all of the following EXCEPT...

speed up metabolism.

39

Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called...

somatomedins

40

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is...

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

41

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is...

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

42

The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is...

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

43

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is...

LH (luteinizing hormone)

44

The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is...

prolactin.

45

The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is...

somatotropin.

46

The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is...

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

47

After brain surgery, a patient is receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

48

The term used to describe excess production of urine is...

polyuria.

49

The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?

9

50

PRL is to _____ as ADH is to _____.

prolactin; vasopressin

51

The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is ___.

oxytocin

52

What element is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?

iodine

53

Which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration?

osteoBlasts

54

Thyroid hormone contains the element...

iodine

55

Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of...

hypOthyroidism

56

The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is...

thyroxine

57

A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is....

calcitonin

58

The condition known as hirsutism can result from too...

much androgen production.

59

The C cells of the thyroid gland produce...

calcitonin

60

Increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

61

Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?

in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

62

TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones.

synthesis and release

63

The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ____ regulation.

endocrine

64

Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

thyroid glands.

65

The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all the following steps EXCEPT

binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane.

66

Which of the following is NOT an action of TSH?

inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

67

Before discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias.. What glands are these and which hormones are lacking?

Parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

68

Parathyroid hormone does all of the following EXCEPT....

build up bone.

69

The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

parathyroid hormone

70

The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.

71

The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces

androgens

72

The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces

glucocorticoids

73

The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces

mineralocorticoids

74

The suprarenal medulla produces...

catecholamines

75

A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is

cortisol.

76

A hormone that helps regulate the sodium ion content of the body is

aldosterone.

77

Cushing's disease results from an excess of

glucocorticoids.

78

Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ (sodium) is the action of

aldosterone.

79

The adrenal medulla produces the hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine

80

Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.

81

A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following EXCEPT

ACTH levels.

82

If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?

increase in blood glucose.

83

Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

Addison's disease

84

A hormone that is synergetic to growth hormone is

cortisol

85

Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

aldosterone

86

Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?

cortisol

87

Which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body adjust to stress?

Adrenal (suprarenal)

88

Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?

glucocorticoids

89

Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are

mineralocorticoids.

90

What is false concerning melatonin?

Exposure to light stimulates production.

91

Melatonin is produced by the

pineal gland.

92

Each of the following is true of the pineal gland EXCEPT that it

is a component of the hypothalamus

93

The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by...

increased levels of melatonin.

94

Alpha cells are to _____ as beta cells are to____.

glucagon; insulin

95

If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting...

glucagon.

96

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is

insulin.

97

Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

low blood glucose

98

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, grow extensive body hair, and stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the ____.

zona reticularis.

99

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the pancreas?

The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones.

100

When blood glucose levels fall,

glucagon is released.

101

The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

insulin.

102

The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

somatostatin.

103

Type II diabetes is characterized by

a lack of response by target cells to insulin.

104

Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?

insulin

105

Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?

blood glucose concentration

106

All of the pancreatic hormones are regulated by

nutrient concentrations in the blood.

107

Cells in the brain

cam absorb glucose without insulin stimulation

108

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is

insulin.

109

Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

diabetes mellitus.

110

Which problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?

retinal problems and nerve problems

111

Type 2 diabetes

can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.

112

The ezyme renin is responsible for the activation of

angiotensin.

113

The interstitial cells of the testes produce

testosterone.

114

Follicle cells in the ovary secrete _____ when stimulated by FSH.

estrogen

115

A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes

progesterone.

116

The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is

inhibin.

117

The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are

thymosins.

118

Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?

erythropoietin

119

Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

epidermis of the integumentary system.

120

The heart secretes the hormone

atrial natriuretic peptide.

121

Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?

sex hormones

122

The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is

epinephrine.

123

During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is

mobilization of energy reserves.

124

If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).

resistance

125

Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the

glucocorticoids.

126

During the resistance phase if the general adaptation syndrome (GAS),

lipid reserves are mobilized.

127

The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

failure of electrolyte balance.

128

The intracellular protein ____ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.

calmodulin.

129

Receptors for ______, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.

catecholamines

130

The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to ____ on target cells.

receptors

131

Cells that respond to a hormone is called ____ cells.

target

132

The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the

neurohypophysis.

133

The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the

adenohypophysis

134

The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars

tuberalis.

135

Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called

gonadotropins.

136

The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the

isthmus.

137

The thyroid gland is composed of many _____ that produce and store thyroid hormone.

follicles.

138

Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid

tyrosine.

139

The specific target cells of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are

all cells of the body.

140

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the parathyroid glands?

There are four small glands.

141

The ____ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney.

Suprarenal

142

The outer layer of suprarenal gland is the

cortex.

143

The inner portion of the suprarenal gland is the

medulla.

144

The suprarenal cortex produces steroid hormones called

corticosteroids.

145

Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called _____ that acts on the hypothalamus.

leptin

146

Why might someone want to take erythropoietin in a non-medical situation?

to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina

147

Two hormones that have opposing effects are called

antagonists.

148

Two hormones that have additive effects are called

synergist.

149

When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called

permissive.

150

Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called

integrative

151

The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is

epinephrine

152

The consistent pattern of hormonal and physiological responses to stresses of different kinds is called ____ syndrome.

general adaptation