The nervous system does NOT...
Function independently of the endocrine system
release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.
____ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
A hormone might...
alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.
Hormones known as "catecholamines" are
derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
Peptide hormones are
composed of amino acids
A kinase is an enzyme that performs
Calcium ions serve a messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
Why is it that steroid hormones use receptors inside of target cells, whereas protein, peptide, and amino acid hormones do not?
Steroids are lipids and the membrane is lipid.
The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an _____ organ.
A simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone.
What substance activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
Steroid hormones are NOT ______
produced by the suprarenal medulla.
What is not a hormone that is an amino acid derivative?
Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.
When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the _____.
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually ____.
a G protein.
When adenyl cyclase is activated_____.
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.
After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,
gene transcription is initiated.
The most complex endocrine system responses involve the_____.
Which hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors?
insulin and epinephrine
All target cells
have hormone receptors
If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which hormone could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
loss of ADH secretion
The primary function of ADH is to
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
TSH, ACTH, PRL
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by...
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.
Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture....
ADH and oxytocin
The main action of the antidiuretic (ADH) hormone is
increased water conservation by kidneys.
Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause____?
Which hormone may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
The posterior pituitary gland secretes ___.
The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis duuring early childhood is ____.
Which hormone is NOT produced by the pars distalis the adenohypophysis?
Growth hormone does all of the following EXCEPT...
speed up metabolism.
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called...
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is...
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is...
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is...
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is...
LH (luteinizing hormone)
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is...
The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is...
The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is...
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
After brain surgery, a patient is receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
The term used to describe excess production of urine is...
The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?
PRL is to _____ as ADH is to _____.
The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is ___.
What element is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?
Which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration?
Thyroid hormone contains the element...
Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of...
The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is...
A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is....
The condition known as hirsutism can result from too...
much androgen production.
The C cells of the thyroid gland produce...
Increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle
TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones.
synthesis and release
The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ____ regulation.
Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all the following steps EXCEPT
binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane.
Which of the following is NOT an action of TSH?
inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
Before discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias.. What glands are these and which hormones are lacking?
Parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone does all of the following EXCEPT....
build up bone.
The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
The suprarenal medulla produces...
A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
A hormone that helps regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
Cushing's disease results from an excess of
Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ (sodium) is the action of
The adrenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.
A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following EXCEPT
If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
increase in blood glucose.
Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
A hormone that is synergetic to growth hormone is
Cells of the adrenal cortex produce
Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
Which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body adjust to stress?
Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are
What is false concerning melatonin?
Exposure to light stimulates production.
Melatonin is produced by the
Each of the following is true of the pineal gland EXCEPT that it
is a component of the hypothalamus
The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by...
increased levels of melatonin.
Alpha cells are to _____ as beta cells are to____.
If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting...
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
low blood glucose
Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, grow extensive body hair, and stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the ____.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the pancreas?
The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones.
When blood glucose levels fall,
glucagon is released.
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
Type II diabetes is characterized by
a lack of response by target cells to insulin.
Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?
Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?
blood glucose concentration
All of the pancreatic hormones are regulated by
nutrient concentrations in the blood.
Cells in the brain
cam absorb glucose without insulin stimulation
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
Which problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?
retinal problems and nerve problems
Type 2 diabetes
can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.
The ezyme renin is responsible for the activation of
The interstitial cells of the testes produce
Follicle cells in the ovary secrete _____ when stimulated by FSH.
A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?
Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system.
The heart secretes the hormone
atrial natriuretic peptide.
Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?
The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is
mobilization of energy reserves.
If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
During the resistance phase if the general adaptation syndrome (GAS),
lipid reserves are mobilized.
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
failure of electrolyte balance.
The intracellular protein ____ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.
Receptors for ______, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.
The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to ____ on target cells.
Cells that respond to a hormone is called ____ cells.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars
Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the
The thyroid gland is composed of many _____ that produce and store thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid
The specific target cells of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are
all cells of the body.
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the parathyroid glands?
There are four small glands.
The ____ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney.
The outer layer of suprarenal gland is the
The inner portion of the suprarenal gland is the
The suprarenal cortex produces steroid hormones called
Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called _____ that acts on the hypothalamus.
Why might someone want to take erythropoietin in a non-medical situation?
to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina
Two hormones that have opposing effects are called
Two hormones that have additive effects are called
When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called
Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called
The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is
The consistent pattern of hormonal and physiological responses to stresses of different kinds is called ____ syndrome.