Human Anatomy & Physiology

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1

1. How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells? Select the best answer.

Hormones travel through the lymphatic system to target cells.
Hormones are released at synapses adjacent to target cells.
Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.
Hormones are produced by endocrine cells that are adjacent to target cells.
Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

2

2. What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?
increasing protein kinases

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell.
phosphorylation of intracellular proteins.

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

3

3. After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

phosphorylates a protein activates a protein kinase
directly alters protein synthesis at the ribosome
acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

4

4-The amplification of the signal from a water-soluble hormone is achieved through an increase in _______.
View Available Hint(s)

cAMP in the cytoplasm
water-soluble hormone in the blood
phosphodiesterase in the cytoplasm
plasma membrane receptors
adenylate cyclase in the plasma membrane

cAMP in the cytoplasm

5

5-Water-soluble hormones affect target cells by binding to __________.

cytoplasmic receptors
protein kinases
adenylate cyclase
plasma membrane receptors
cAMP

plasma membrane receptors

6

6-How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells?

Hormones travel through the lymphatic system to target cells.
Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells.
Hormones are produced by endocrine cells that are adjacent to target cells.
Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.
Hormones are released at synapses adjacent to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cell

7

7-What is the role of activated protein kinases?

Phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
Phosphorylate proteins.
Degrade cAMP to AMP.
Convert ATP to cAMP by phosphorylation.
Activate adenylate cyclase.

Phosphorylate proteins.

8

8- Cyclic AMP is degraded by __________.

adenylate cyclase
AMP
phosphodiesterase
G proteins
protein kinase

phosphodiesterase

9

9-Which of the following is not one of the functions of the endocrine system?

controls memory and learning
maintains fluid balance
regulates metabolic reactions
promotes growth

controls memory and learning

10

10-Compared to the effects of the nervous system, the effects of the endocrine system __________.

do not have an effect on homeostasis
are faster
last longer
are mediated by neurotransmitters

are faster

11

11- Which of the following is a primary endocrine organ?

pineal gland
testes
thyroid gland
heart

thyroid gland

12

12-The anterior pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is __________.

ACTH
CRH
TSH
PRL

ACTH

13

13-Which of the following hormones is secreted by the posterior pituitary?

Somatostatin
Prolactin
ADH
TSH

ADH

14

14- Hormones that control hormone secretion from other glands are known as:

tropic hormones.
trophic hormones.
growth hormones.
steroid hormones.

tropic hormones.

15

15- Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin) made?

posterior pituitary
thyroid gland
hypothalamus
anterior pituitary

hypothalamus

16

16-What is the primary effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin)?

water retention by the kidneys
blood glucose regulation
increases urine production by the kidneys
sodium retention by the kidneys

water retention by the kidneys

17

17-What element is necessary for the production of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)?

magnesium
iodine
potassium
calcium

iodine

18

18-Place the following hormones in the correct order of their control, from first tier to third tier.

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), production of T3 and T4
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), production of T3 and T4, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), production of T3 and T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), production of T3 and T4

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), production of T3 and T4

19

19-What stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

hypocalcemia
low basal metabolic rate
cold temperatures
hypercalcemia

hypocalcemia

20

20-

What is NOT an effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

increased reabsorption of calcium ions from fluid in the kidneys
increased absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine
increased release of calcium ions from bone
increased osteoblast activity

increased osteoblast activity

21

21-Aldosterone regulates:

blood iodide ion levels.
blood calcium ion levels.
extracellular sodium and potassium ion levels.
blood glucose levels.

extracellular sodium and potassium ion levels.

22

22-Some potassium-sparing diuretics increase urination without the loss of potassium by working against receptors for:

aldosterone.
glucocorticoids.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
cortisol.

aldosterone.

23

23-What first tier hormone stimulates cortisol production?

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
somatostatin

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

24

24- Excess cortisol could result in:

low blood pressure.
high blood glucose levels.
an alkaline blood pH.
increased parasympathetic nervous system activati

high blood glucose levels.

25

25-When blood glucose levels are high

The pancreas releases glucose.
The liver releases glucagon.
The liver releases insulin.
The pancreas releases insulin.
The pancreas releases glucagon

The pancreas releases insulin.

26

26-A liver cell responds to insulin by

Releasing insulin.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
Releasing glucagon.

Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.

27

27-What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

Muscle cells.
Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
Intestinal cells.
Liver cells.
Cells in the pancreas.

Liver cells.

28

28-Body cells that respond to insulin include

Muscle cells only.
Liver cells only.
Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
Intestinal cells only.
Liver cells and muscle cells only.

Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.

29

29-When blood glucose levels are low

Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase

30

30-The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called

negative feedback.
positive feedback.
diabetes.
homeostasis.
None of the above.

homeostasis.

31

31-Which of the following effects is NOT associated with the hormone insulin?

Synthesis of fat
Stimulation of cells to uptake and utilize glucose
Gluconeogenesis in the liver
Glycogen synthesis

Gluconeogenesis in the liver

32

32-Which pancreatic cells release insulin and glucagon?

chromaffin cells
chief cells
pancreatic islets
acinar cells

pancreatic islets

33

33-What is the main function of glucagon?

regulate sodium and potassium ion levels
raise blood glucose levels
lower blood glucose levels
regulate blood pressure

raise blood glucose levels

34

34-The pineal gland produces the hormone __________.

melatonin
aldosterone
oxytocin
calcitonin

melatonin

35

35-Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) promotes:

increased blood pressure.
vasodilation.
decreased urination.
water retention.

vasodilation.

36

36-High levels of testosterone inhibit the release of:

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

37

37-Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?

ADH (vasopressin)
aldosterone
epinephrine
cortisol

epinephrine

38

38-In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

decreased cardiac output
decreased sweating
decreased or difficulty breathing
decreased insulin secretion

decreased insulin secretion

39

39-Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

cool, dry skin
low blood glucose
slow heart rate
heart palpitations

heart palpitations

40

40-Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a “moon face.”

pheochromocytoma
Cushing’s disease
Addison’s disease

Cushing’s disease

41

41-What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

aldosterone
angiotensin II
ADH (vasopressin)
cortisol

ADH (vasopressin)