Anatomy and Physiology 2, Exam 1 Flashcards


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caroline evans
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anatomy & physiology 2
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1

a valve of the heart consisting of two cusps attached by chordae tendineae, present between the left atrium and left ventricle

Bicuspid/Mitral valve

2

receiving chamber of the heart that moves de oxygenated blood from the vena cava

Right Atrium

3

outgrowths of the cardiac muscle that help secure atrioventricular valves in place

Papillary Muscles

4

largest vessels of the body that move deoxygenated blood into the right atrium

Vena Cava

5

shared wall between right and left artia

Interatrial Septum

6

receiving chamber of the heart that moves oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins

Left Atrium

7

valve of the heart consisting of three cusps attached by chordae tendineae , present between right atrium and right ventricle

Tricuspid Valve

8

pumping chamber of the heart that moves blood into the aorta

Left Ventricle

9

valve of the heart consisting of three cusps, present between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary Semilunar valve

10

vessel that moves deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Pulmonary Trunk

11

shared wall between right and left ventricles

Interventricular Septum

12

pumping chamber of the heart that moves deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary trunk

Right Ventricle

13

valve of the heart consisting of 3 cusps, present between the left ventricle and aorta

Aortic Semilunar Valve

14

largest vessel of the body that moves oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to systemic circulation

Aorta

15

vessels that carry oxygenated blood form the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart

Pulmonary Veins

16

fibrous membrane surrounding the heart

Pericardium

17

visceral layer of the pericardium

Epicardium

18

muscle of the heart. this is what contracts during the cardiac cycle

Myocardium

19

innermost layer of the heart. only visible after the heart has been cut open

Endocardium

20

flattened, bioconcave disk; pale red in color

transport oxygen and carbondioxide to/from tissues

RBC/Erythrocyte

21

phagocytic cells, can release cytotoxic chemicals in bacterial infections

abundant light purple granules in cytoplasm, multi lobed nucleus

Neutrophils

22

present in viral and fungal infections, aggressive macrophages. Antigen presenting cell

largest leukocyte with an indented U or horse shaped nucleus

Monocyte

23

large circular nucleus that occupies most of the cell , clear cytoplasm

function in the third line of defense; produce armies of cells and/or antibodies against a specific target pathogen

Lymphocyte

24

nucleus typically bi-lobed, red granules in cytoplasm

increase in number during allergic reactions and parasitic infections

Eosinophil

25

cell fragments containing purple granules

function in hemostasis by forming a plug to stop bleeding

Platelet

26

nucleus is obscured due to large dark purple granules present

promotes inflammation by releasing histamine and heparin

Basophil

27

component of the heme group that binds to oxygen

IRON

28

fibrin digesting enzyme, necessary for the breakdown of the fibrin mesh of a clot

Plasmin

29

needed for DNA synthesis in erythrocyte formation

Vitamin B12

30

converts CO2 and water to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate

Carbonic Anhydrase

31

fibrous monomers that combine and stitch damaged vessels

Fibrin

32

which molecule binds to hemoglobin to stimulate the displacement of oxygen?

Hydrogen Ions

33

when a blood clot is forming in the body, signaling by platelets recruits other platelets to the site of injury. The coagulation cascade is initiated and the body does not stop until the clot is formed and bleeding has ceased. This is an example of:

Positive Feedback

34

Plasma has many dissolved substances. Which of the following are NOT present under normal conditions?

Carbon Monoxide - will displace oxygen

35

Which of the following causes vascular spasm during hemostasis?

Endothelium

36

during the coagulation cascade, conversion of which molecule by activated platelets result in the common pathway?

Factor X

37

always found circulating in the blood plasma

it is inactive until cleaved to active form

Fibrinogen

38

heart cells at rest. slightly negative charge

Polarization

39

cells reach their threshold

contracting/working

charge changes from ( - ) to ( + )

Depolarization

40

brings cells back to resting state, back to negative charge

Repolarization

41

conduction cells that spread signal from atria to ventricles

Bundle of HIS/AV bundle

42

generates the initial action potential; pacemaker of the heart

Sinoatrial (SA) Node

43

nerve-like cardio myocytes that activate the lateral ventricular walls. last to be stimulated

Purkinje Fibers

44

concentration of cells in the interatrial septum; slows down action potentials so atria have time to contract and fill ventricles

Atrioventricular (AV) Node

45

cells split and descend to the apex of the heart via the interventricular

Right and Left Bundle Branches

46

calcium handling/slow release

shows a prominent plateau phase after spike during action potential

Cardiac Muscle

47

sodium handling

sharp drop immediately after spike in action potential

Skeletal Muscle

48

what event happens when the pressure in the Left Ventricle is higher than the pressure in the Left Atrium

Mitral/Bicuspid (AV valves) close

49

during ventricular systole, blood in the atria is _________(increased/decreased) and volume of the ventricle is ________

Increased

Low

50

during isovolumic contraction, pressure is highest in the ___________

outflow vessels

51

during what part of the cardiac cycle is pressure highest in the large systemic arteries?

Isovolumic Relaxation

52

during ventricular diastole, pressure of the RIGHT VENTRICLE is _________ (increased,decreased,same), compared to pressure in the RIGHT ATRIUM

Decreased

53

what phase of the cardiac cycle are cardiomyocytes shortening?

Isovolumic Contraction

54

What event occurs when the pressure in the Left Ventricle is higher than the pressure in the aorta?

Aortic Semilunar Valves open

55

right side of the heart

low pressure pump because blood is only going through the heart to lungs to be oxygenated

deoxygenated blood enters the venacava

Pulmonary Circuit

56

left side structures

moves oxygenated blood out to the whole body

requires a higher blood pressure pump as well as more muscle

Systemic Circuit