human anatomy & physiology

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 16, 17
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1

1) What are paracrine target cells?

Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is near.

2

2)define solubility of hormones.

water-soluble hormones and fat-soluble hormones. Most hormones (water-soluble hormones) consist of many amino acids attached together but some (fat-soluble) hormones are formed from cholesterol.

3

3)what is autocrine signaling

These hormones act on the same cell that secretes them.

4

4) The mechanism of action of hydrophilic

-Polar
-Cannot pass freely through the PM
-Polypeptides, glycoproteins, catecholamines

5

5)The mechanism of action of hydrophobic

-Non-Polar
-Pass through the PM
-Steroid
▪ Adrenal cortex: corticosteroids
▪ Gonads: androgens, estrogens, progesterone
-Thyroid
▪ Thyroxine, triiodothyronine

6

6)What is a humoral stimulus?

...

7

7)What is a humoral stimulus?

-Hormones secreted
in direct response to
blood concentration

8

8)what is neural stimulus?

-Nerve fibers release
hormones (e.g.,
sympathetic ANS)

9

9) what is hormonal stimulus?

-Hormones secreted
in response to other
circulating hormones

10

10) How are most endocrine reflexes controlled

-Negative Feedback

11

11) hormonal interactions when a few hormones act on the same target cell.

These hormones act on the same cell that secretes them.

12

12 what is tropic hormone?

They are produced by the anterior pituitary gland and are hormones that control the activities of other endocrine glands

13

13) what is trophic hormone?

Trophic hormones directly affect growth on the tissue it is stimulating.

14

14) Which are the hormones released by the hypothalamus.

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Thyroid
2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Outer layer of adrenal gland
3. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH): Before breast milk
4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH): testes and ovaries
5. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): growth hormones

15

15) What does GH or somatotropin do?

Stimulates cell growth and replication by release of somatomedins or IGH.

16

16) List 2 inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus

1. Somatostatin: body
2. Prolactin-inhibiting factor: "No breast, don't make milk"