Metabolisms

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metabolism

energy transfer within organisms are based on sequences (metabolism pathways) of chemical reactions involved in releasing (catabolic or exergonic) or absorbing (anabolic or endergonic) free energy

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autotrophs ( carbon source)

CO2 as sole carbon source

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heterotrophs (carbon source)

Organic substances from other organisms

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phototroph (energy source)

light energy

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chemotroph (energy source)

chemical energy source (organic and inorganic)

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Lithotrophs (electron source)

reduced inorganic substances

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organotrophs (electron source)

organic compound

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most common type of metabolisms we see are?

chemoheteroorganotroph and photoautoorganotroph

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chemoheteroorganotroph is known to be use by

humans. We use organic source of energy, carbon and electron

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photoautoorgnotroph is know to be use by

plants. light as energy source. CO2 are organic.

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other bacterias do weird things like?

photoheterolithotroph

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photoheterolithotroph

bacterias. Found in harsh environment.

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chemotrophic energy harvesting. How chemotrophs get the energy to do all this?

prefer to use a carbohydrate as energy source. Usually picks glucose.

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How does glucose get metabolized in bacteria is through a process called?

Glycolosis

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Glycolosis is known as ?

Embden Meyerh of pathway

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most micros does?

Embden Meyerh of pathway

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Glycolosis is

any catabolic pathway that break up sugar

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Glucose go through first to?

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (-2 ATP)

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Glucose-Dihydroxyacetone phosphate-> goes through?

glyceral dehyde 3-phosphate (+ 2ATP and +NADH)

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Glucose-Dihydroxyacetone phosphate-glyceral dehyde 3-phosphate-> to get to?

Pyruvate ( this process is done twice- x2)

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NAD+ is what type of energy?

high energy form

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NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucletide

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In bacteria, the pyruvate is passed into which process?

fermentation (chemistry enzymes are differents) hey generate acids, alcohol, or gases. Which one you get depends on what organism you looking at

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fermentation is?

the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeast, or other microorganisms, typically involving efferversance and giving off of heat. EX. yougurt, cheese, pickets, & alcohol

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In fermentation, acid are made of

lactic, formic, acetic

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in fermentation, alcohol are things made of

ethanol, methanol, butahediol, when yest fermentation sugar it makes ethanol

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In fermentation, gas is made from

CO2 and hydrogen

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NADH -> Oxidate to

NAD+

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6- Carbon sugar breaks in 2 equal part to 2-carbon which is equal to?

pyruvate

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from glucose goes to?

pyruvate

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from pyruvate goes into?

acetyl-coenzyme A

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from acetyl-coenzyme A goes to?

Krebs cycle

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from krebs cycles is oxidated to?

28 ATP

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In fermentation the cycle goes from Glucose-glycolosis-pyruvate acid to?

2 lactic acid, due to of the lack of O2

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with the presence of O2 in glycolosis passed into Acetil-coenzyme A- krebs cycle and into?

electron transport chain

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In intermediate steps you will get?

+NADH and 2 Carbon( from 3 carbonss become 2 carbons)

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In the krebss cycle we have

FADH2 , which is high energy from, and FAD which is low energy form

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FADH2 is what type of energy form?

high energy form

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FAD is what type of energy form?

low energy form

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FAD means?

flavin adenine dinucleotide

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glycolysis

4 ATP and 2 NADH

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intermediate steps

2 NADH

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Krebs cycle

2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2

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one glucose makes

40 ATP - 2 ATP = 38 ATP net yield

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1 NADH

3 ATP

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1 FADH2

2 ATP

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electron transport chain (ETC)

in the cell membrane of the bacteria, is a serie of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donor to electron acceptors via redox reaction, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons across a membrane

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ATP Synthesis (rod, stater, beta protein)

is a proton carrier, lets proton into the cell through difussion and make the motor part spin. samething happen with the flagellum carrying protons

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proton motive force

chemosmosis, process of letting protons flow back into the cell

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ETC

electron move down in a sequence. They bleed up the energy associated with electrons, by the time they get to the end there will be low energy.

transport protons from cytoplasm (just outside of the cell membrane)

FADH does not hand out its electron at the same point as NADH.

When they get to the last part of electron trasport chain, electrons get passed from the chain to a molecule of oxygen, that takes electron combined with some protons and make a molecule of water.

Oxygen terminal electron acceptor and receiver in the ETC.

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krebs cycle initial substrate

modified end product of Glycolosis, 2 pyruvate acid is modified to 2 acetyl Co A, which enters the TCA cycle

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krebs cycle circuit of organic acids

series of oxidations and reductions in Eukaryotes and Porkaryotes

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Eukaryotes happens in

mitochondria's matrix

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Prokayotes happens in

cytoplasm of bacteria and cell membrane

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products

2 ATP, 6 NADH2, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2

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krebs cycles and ETC is in

cellular respiration

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oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in ETC, therefore this is

Aerobic respiration

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aerobic means

relating to involving, or requiring oxygen

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some bacteria can perform?

Anaerobic cellular respiration

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anaerobic means

relating to, involving, ot requiring an absence of oxygen

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what energized nucleotide we make from it and what are the waste product of the krebs cycle?

carbon dioxide is release as waste product

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krebs cycle creates?

2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2

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Glycolosis -emben meyerhot creates

4 ATP, 2 NADH

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Intermediated steps

2 NADH

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One glucose allows to make how much of ATP?

38 ATP net yield

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cellular respiration is made with the following

  • requires oxygen
  • slow
  • 38 ATP net yield
  • metabolic intermediate
  • ETC generate proton motive force
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fermentation process requires

  • no oxygen
  • fast
  • 2 ATP yield
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In Eukaryotic cell the krebs cycle happens in the inner membrane at

the mitochondria -power house

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use to believe that the mitochondria was previously

a bacteria cell membrane

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phospholipids are different in the two membrane as

  • in the inner membrane at the mitochondria looks like prokarytic cell
  • outside of the mitochondira looks more like ...?
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ribossomes in mitchondira are

70s

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but ribosomes in the Eukarytic cell are

80s

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the DNA in the mitochondira looks like

the bacteria sequences

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cell in the mitochondria divide when they need more?

mitochondria, looking more like bacteria reproduction

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Endosymbiotic theory

description of how we got mitochondria.

-some of the eukaryotic cells existed from eating prokaryotic engulfs the particles and you make a new cell

-the small organelle that can prevent the fusion event

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a case of mutation

a kind of symbiosis, where both of the organism benefits.

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Prokaryotic cell living inside of the eukaryotic cell is an

endosymbiotic

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endosymboitic means

an organism that is living inside the other

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the benefit of endosymbitic

they can perform cellular respirationa nd produce a tons of ATP- enough for both

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Enther Doudoroff pathway known as

ED pathway

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the final products in ED pathways are

1 ATP, 1 NADH, 1 NADPH

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in ED pathway is actually cheaper to make since it only uses

1 ATP

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ED pathway can be describe as

a pathway, a serie of enzymes catalyzed chemical reactions that are active in bacteria primary metabolism, a pathway that catabolizes glucose to pyruvate acid using enzymes distint either from those used in glycolosis or the pentose phosphate pathway

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Pentose phosphate pathway

is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolosis. It generate NADPH nad pentose -"5-carbon sugar", as well as ribose 5-phosphate. The last of precurse of the synthesis of nucleotides

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saccharides

take other saccharides and make them glucose 6-phosphate

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lipid catabolism

bacterias do it if they get fats.

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Bacteria will use

lipases

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liposase

remove fatty acids

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Lipids-fatty acids "lipases"- "beta oxidation"-acetyl COs-acetyl COA->

krebs cycle

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in lipid catabolism, during the krebs cycle how man carbons are cut?

2

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rancidity means?

refers to a process in which microorganism, such as bacteria use their enzymes such as lipases to break down fat.

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what it mean when the food goes ranci?

the food goes bad, because the paticles are drying out. most cause its due to no light and expose to heat.

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what goes bad faster? plants or animals

plants

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protein catabolism

it;s the breakdown if proteins into amino acids and simple derivate compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimatly for the polymerization into new proteins via use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribomes

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protein catabolism features

  • can be use for energy
  • proteases
  • peptidase
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transamination

transfer of amino group from one molecule to another, especially from amino acid to a keto acid

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transamination example

l-alanine or ketoglutarate to pyruvate or l-glutamate (one of the component of the krebs cycle)

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stick land reaction

a chemical reaction that involves the coupled oxidation and reduction of amino acids to organic acids

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genus clostridium

another bacteria that cause glycine (doesn't require oxygen)

genus in gram-positive. fermenation-amino acid and generates ATP

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Chemolithotrophy

inorganic electron source, when using chemical source of chemistry, bacteria and archae use it

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nitrification

convertions. Important b/c is good for plants an other things in soil

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NH4 + NO2 -

nitrosomonas

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NO2 + NO3 =

nitrobacter

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bacterias that use NH3 from the dirt are

slow

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denitrification

use nitrate as anaeorobic electron electron

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N2 ->

NH2

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Nitrogen cycle

N2 ->nitrogen fixation-> NH3-> nitrification (soil)-> NO3 ->denifrification (atmosphere)

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NH2 will damage

living tissues

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nitrogen can be fix by

photosynthesis

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photosynthesis for cyanobacteria, the special cells (small ones) are called

heterocyst

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the more green cells in cyanobacteria makes the

photosynthesis and glucose

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anoxygenic is

photosynthesis, substain chlorophyl but bacteriochorophyll

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peptidoglycan synthesis

glucose-> glucose 6-phosphate-> fructose 6-phospahte (sugar drivers)-> '' 6-phosphate-> 2-glycera

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penicillin

block the cell to a new peptidoglycan has a couple of different activities

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in penicillin before the 2 daughter cells are divided in the peptidoglycan will

block peptidoglycan from splitting the 2 daughter cells creating bacteriostatic

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bactericidal means

killed cells

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gluconeogenesis

reversable of peptidoglycan synthesis