energy transfer within organisms are based on sequences (metabolism pathways) of chemical reactions involved in releasing (catabolic or exergonic) or absorbing (anabolic or endergonic) free energy
autotrophs ( carbon source)
CO2 as sole carbon source
heterotrophs (carbon source)
Organic substances from other organisms
phototroph (energy source)
chemotroph (energy source)
chemical energy source (organic and inorganic)
Lithotrophs (electron source)
reduced inorganic substances
organotrophs (electron source)
most common type of metabolisms we see are?
chemoheteroorganotroph and photoautoorganotroph
chemoheteroorganotroph is known to be use by
humans. We use organic source of energy, carbon and electron
photoautoorgnotroph is know to be use by
plants. light as energy source. CO2 are organic.
other bacterias do weird things like?
bacterias. Found in harsh environment.
chemotrophic energy harvesting. How chemotrophs get the energy to do all this?
prefer to use a carbohydrate as energy source. Usually picks glucose.
How does glucose get metabolized in bacteria is through a process called?
Glycolosis is known as ?
Embden Meyerh of pathway
most micros does?
Embden Meyerh of pathway
any catabolic pathway that break up sugar
Glucose go through first to?
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (-2 ATP)
Glucose-Dihydroxyacetone phosphate-> goes through?
glyceral dehyde 3-phosphate (+ 2ATP and +NADH)
Glucose-Dihydroxyacetone phosphate-glyceral dehyde 3-phosphate-> to get to?
Pyruvate ( this process is done twice- x2)
NAD+ is what type of energy?
high energy form
nicotinamide adenine dinucletide
In bacteria, the pyruvate is passed into which process?
fermentation (chemistry enzymes are differents) hey generate acids, alcohol, or gases. Which one you get depends on what organism you looking at
the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeast, or other microorganisms, typically involving efferversance and giving off of heat. EX. yougurt, cheese, pickets, & alcohol
In fermentation, acid are made of
lactic, formic, acetic
in fermentation, alcohol are things made of
ethanol, methanol, butahediol, when yest fermentation sugar it makes ethanol
In fermentation, gas is made from
CO2 and hydrogen
NADH -> Oxidate to
6- Carbon sugar breaks in 2 equal part to 2-carbon which is equal to?
from glucose goes to?
from pyruvate goes into?
from acetyl-coenzyme A goes to?
from krebs cycles is oxidated to?
In fermentation the cycle goes from Glucose-glycolosis-pyruvate acid to?
2 lactic acid, due to of the lack of O2
with the presence of O2 in glycolosis passed into Acetil-coenzyme A- krebs cycle and into?
electron transport chain
In intermediate steps you will get?
+NADH and 2 Carbon( from 3 carbonss become 2 carbons)
In the krebss cycle we have
FADH2 , which is high energy from, and FAD which is low energy form
FADH2 is what type of energy form?
high energy form
FAD is what type of energy form?
low energy form
flavin adenine dinucleotide
4 ATP and 2 NADH
2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2
one glucose makes
40 ATP - 2 ATP = 38 ATP net yield
electron transport chain (ETC)
in the cell membrane of the bacteria, is a serie of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donor to electron acceptors via redox reaction, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons across a membrane
ATP Synthesis (rod, stater, beta protein)
is a proton carrier, lets proton into the cell through difussion and make the motor part spin. samething happen with the flagellum carrying protons
proton motive force
chemosmosis, process of letting protons flow back into the cell
electron move down in a sequence. They bleed up the energy associated with electrons, by the time they get to the end there will be low energy.
transport protons from cytoplasm (just outside of the cell membrane)
FADH does not hand out its electron at the same point as NADH.
When they get to the last part of electron trasport chain, electrons get passed from the chain to a molecule of oxygen, that takes electron combined with some protons and make a molecule of water.
Oxygen terminal electron acceptor and receiver in the ETC.
krebs cycle initial substrate
modified end product of Glycolosis, 2 pyruvate acid is modified to 2 acetyl Co A, which enters the TCA cycle
krebs cycle circuit of organic acids
series of oxidations and reductions in Eukaryotes and Porkaryotes
Eukaryotes happens in
Prokayotes happens in
cytoplasm of bacteria and cell membrane
2 ATP, 6 NADH2, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2
krebs cycles and ETC is in
oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in ETC, therefore this is
relating to involving, or requiring oxygen
some bacteria can perform?
Anaerobic cellular respiration
relating to, involving, ot requiring an absence of oxygen
what energized nucleotide we make from it and what are the waste product of the krebs cycle?
carbon dioxide is release as waste product
krebs cycle creates?
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
Glycolosis -emben meyerhot creates
4 ATP, 2 NADH
One glucose allows to make how much of ATP?
38 ATP net yield
cellular respiration is made with the following
- requires oxygen
- 38 ATP net yield
- metabolic intermediate
- ETC generate proton motive force
fermentation process requires
- no oxygen
- 2 ATP yield
In Eukaryotic cell the krebs cycle happens in the inner membrane at
the mitochondria -power house
use to believe that the mitochondria was previously
a bacteria cell membrane
phospholipids are different in the two membrane as
- in the inner membrane at the mitochondria looks like prokarytic cell
- outside of the mitochondira looks more like ...?
ribossomes in mitchondira are
but ribosomes in the Eukarytic cell are
the DNA in the mitochondira looks like
the bacteria sequences
cell in the mitochondria divide when they need more?
mitochondria, looking more like bacteria reproduction
description of how we got mitochondria.
-some of the eukaryotic cells existed from eating prokaryotic engulfs the particles and you make a new cell
-the small organelle that can prevent the fusion event
a case of mutation
a kind of symbiosis, where both of the organism benefits.
Prokaryotic cell living inside of the eukaryotic cell is an
an organism that is living inside the other
the benefit of endosymbitic
they can perform cellular respirationa nd produce a tons of ATP- enough for both
Enther Doudoroff pathway known as
the final products in ED pathways are
1 ATP, 1 NADH, 1 NADPH
in ED pathway is actually cheaper to make since it only uses
ED pathway can be describe as
a pathway, a serie of enzymes catalyzed chemical reactions that are active in bacteria primary metabolism, a pathway that catabolizes glucose to pyruvate acid using enzymes distint either from those used in glycolosis or the pentose phosphate pathway
Pentose phosphate pathway
is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolosis. It generate NADPH nad pentose -"5-carbon sugar", as well as ribose 5-phosphate. The last of precurse of the synthesis of nucleotides
take other saccharides and make them glucose 6-phosphate
bacterias do it if they get fats.
Bacteria will use
remove fatty acids
Lipids-fatty acids "lipases"- "beta oxidation"-acetyl COs-acetyl COA->
in lipid catabolism, during the krebs cycle how man carbons are cut?
refers to a process in which microorganism, such as bacteria use their enzymes such as lipases to break down fat.
what it mean when the food goes ranci?
the food goes bad, because the paticles are drying out. most cause its due to no light and expose to heat.
what goes bad faster? plants or animals
it;s the breakdown if proteins into amino acids and simple derivate compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimatly for the polymerization into new proteins via use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribomes
protein catabolism features
- can be use for energy
transfer of amino group from one molecule to another, especially from amino acid to a keto acid
l-alanine or ketoglutarate to pyruvate or l-glutamate (one of the component of the krebs cycle)
stick land reaction
a chemical reaction that involves the coupled oxidation and reduction of amino acids to organic acids
another bacteria that cause glycine (doesn't require oxygen)
genus in gram-positive. fermenation-amino acid and generates ATP
inorganic electron source, when using chemical source of chemistry, bacteria and archae use it
convertions. Important b/c is good for plants an other things in soil
NH4 + NO2 -
NO2 + NO3 =
bacterias that use NH3 from the dirt are
use nitrate as anaeorobic electron electron
N2 ->nitrogen fixation-> NH3-> nitrification (soil)-> NO3 ->denifrification (atmosphere)
NH2 will damage
nitrogen can be fix by
photosynthesis for cyanobacteria, the special cells (small ones) are called
the more green cells in cyanobacteria makes the
photosynthesis and glucose
photosynthesis, substain chlorophyl but bacteriochorophyll
glucose-> glucose 6-phosphate-> fructose 6-phospahte (sugar drivers)-> '' 6-phosphate-> 2-glycera
block the cell to a new peptidoglycan has a couple of different activities
in penicillin before the 2 daughter cells are divided in the peptidoglycan will
block peptidoglycan from splitting the 2 daughter cells creating bacteriostatic
reversable of peptidoglycan synthesis