GM Level 8 Terms and Signs: Complete

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1

a tempo

return to the original tempo

2

accelerando, accel.

becoming quicker

3

accent

a stressed note

4

ad libitum, ad. lib

at the liberty of the performer

5

adagio

slow

6

agitato

agitated

7

alla, all’

in the manner of

8

allargando, allarg.

broadening, becoming slower

9

allegretto

fairly fast (a little slower than allegro)

10

allegro

fast

11

andante

moderately slow; at a walking pace

12

animato

lively, animated

13

andantino

a little faster than andante

14

arco

for stringed instruments: resume bowing after a pizzicato passage

15

attacca

proceed without a break

16

ben, bene

well (for example: ben marcato, well marked)

17

bewegt

moving

18

calando

becoming slower and softer

19

cantabile

in a singing style

20

cédez

yield; hold the tempo back

21

col, coll’, colla, colle

with (for example: coll’ottava, with an added octave0

22

comodo

at a comfortable, easy tempo

23

con

with

24

con brio

with vigor, spirit

25

con espressione

with expression

26

con fuoco

with fire

27

con grazia

with grace

28

con moto

with movement

29

con sordino

with mute

30

crescendo, cresc.

becoming louder

31

D.C. al Fine

repeat from the beginning and end at Fine

32

da capo, D.C.

from the beginning

33

dal segno, D.S.

from the sign

34

decrescendo, decresc.

becoming softer

35

diminuendo, dim.

becoming softer

36

dolce

sweet, gentle

37

dolente

sad

38

e, ed

and

39

fine

the end

40

forte, f

loud

41

fortepiano, fp

loud, then suddenly soft

42

fortissimo, ff

very loud

43

giocoso

humorous, jocose

44

grandioso

grand, grandiose

45

grave

slow and solemn

46

grazioso

graceful

47

l’istesso tempo

the same tempo

48

langsam

slow, slowly

49

largamente

broadly

50

larghetto

fairly slow but not as slow as largo

51

largo

very slow

52

legato

smooth

53

léger

light, lightly

54

leggiero

light, nimble, quick

55

lentement

slowly

56

lento

slow

57

loco

return to normal register

58

ma

but (for example: ma non troppo, but not too much)

59

maestoso

majestic

60

mano destra, m.d.

right hand

61

mano sinistra, m.s.

left hand

62

martellato

strongly accented, hammered

63

mässig

moderate, moderately

64

meno

less

65

meno mosso

less movement, slower

66

mesto

sad, mournful

67

mezzo forte, mf

moderately loud

68

mezzo piano, mp

moderately soft

69

mit Ausdruck

with expression

70

moderato

at a moderate tempo

71

modéré

at a moderate tempo

72

molto

much, very

73

morendo

dying, fading away

74

mouvement

tempo, motion

75

non

not

76

ottava, 8va

the interval of an octave

77

pedale, ped.

pedal

78

pesante

weighty, with emphasis

79

pianissimo, pp

very soft

80

piano, p

soft

81

più

more

82

più mosso

more movement (quicker)

83

pizzicato

for stringed instruments: pluck the strings instead of bowing

84

poco

little

85

poco a poco

little by little

86

prestissimo

as fast as possible

87

presto

very fast

88

primo, prima

first, the upper part of a duet

89

quasi

almost, as if

90

quindicesima alta, 15ma

two octaves higher

91

rallentando, rall.

slowing down

92

risoluto

resolute

93

ritardando, rit.

slowing down gradually

94

ritenuto, riten.

suddenly slower, held back

95

rubato

with some freedom of tempo to enhance musical expression

96

scherzando

playful

97

schnell

fast

98

secondo, seconda

second; second or lower part of a duet

99

sehr

very

100

semplice

simple

101

sempre

always, continuously

102

senza

without

103

sforzando, sf, sfz

a sudden strong accent of a single note or chord

104

simile

continue in the same manner as has just been indicated

105

sonore

sonorous

106

sopra

above

107

sostenuto

sustained

108

sotto voce

soft, subdued, under the breath

109

spiritoso

spirited

110

staccato

detached

111

stringendo

pressing, becoming faster

112

subito

suddenly

113

tacet

be silent

114

tempo

speed at which music is performed

115

Tempo primo (Tempo I)

return to the original tempo

116

tranquillo

quiet, tranquil

117

tre corde

three strings; release the left (piano) pedal

118

troppo

too much

119

tutti

a passage for the ensemble

120

una corda

one string; depress the left (piano) pedal

121

vite

fast

122

vivace

lively, brisk

123

vivo

lively

124

volta

time (for example, prima volta: first time; seconda volta: second time

125

volti subito, v.s.

turn the page quickly

126
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crescendo, cresc. - becoming louder

127
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decrescendo, decresc., diminuendo, dim. - becoming softer

128
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double bar line - indicates the end of a piece

129
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fermata - hold note or rest longer than its written value

130
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slur - play the notes smoothly (legato)

131
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staccato - detached

132
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tie - hold for the combined value of the tied notes

133
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accent - a stressed note

134
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common time - symbol for 4/4 time

135
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pedal marking - use the piano damper pedal

136
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pedal marking - use the piano damper pedal

137
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repeat sign- repeat the music between the two signs or between the sign and the beginning of the piece

138
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tenuto - held, sustained

139
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breath mark - take a breath, and/or slight pause or lift

140
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up bow - on a bowed string instrument, play the note while drawing the bow upward

141
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down bow - on a bowed string instrument, play the note while drawing the bow downward

142
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dal segno - from the sign

143
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ottava, 8va - play one octave below the written pitch

144
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ottava, 8va - play one octave above the written pitch

145
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glissando, gliss. - continuous slide upward or downward between two pitches