THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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1

1)The amplification of the signal from a water-soluble hormone is achieved through an increase in
A) cAMP in the cytoplasm
B)water-soluble hormone in the blood
C)phosphodiesterase in the cytoplasm
D)plasma membrane receptors

A

2

2)Water-soluble hormones affect target cells by binding to __________.
A) cytoplasmic receptors
B) protein kinases
C) adenylate cyclase
D)plasma membrane receptors

D

3

3)How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells?
A)Hormones travel through the lymphatic system to target cells.
B)Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells.
C)Hormones are produced by endocrine cells that are adjacent to target cells.
D)Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

D

4

4))What is the role of activated protein kinases?
A)Phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
B)Degrade cAMP to AMP.
C)Phosphorylate proteins.
D)Convert ATP to cAMP by phosphorylation.

C

5

5)9)Cyclic AMP is degraded by __________.
A)adenylate cyclase
protein kinase
B)AMP
C)phosphodiesterase
D)G proteins

C

6

6)Which of the following is a primary endocrine organ?

A) pineal gland
B) testes
C) thyroid gland
D)heart

C

7

7)Which of the following hormones is secreted by the posterior pituitary?

A) Somatostatin
B)Prolactin
C) ADH
D)TSH

C

8

8)Hormones that control hormone secretion from other glands are known as:

A) tropic hormones.
B) trophic hormones.
C) growth hormones.
D) steroid hormones.

A

9

9)Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin) made?

A) posterior pituitary
B) thyroid gland
C) hypothalamus
D) anterior pituitary

C

10

10)What is the primary effect of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin)?

A) water retention by the kidneys
B) blood glucose regulation
C) increases urine production by the kidneys
D) sodium retention by the kidneys

A

11

11)What element is necessary for the production of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)?

A) magnesium
B) iodine
C) potassium
D) calcium

B

12

12) Place the following hormones in the correct order of their control, from first tier to third tier.

A) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), production of T3 and T4
B) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), production of T3 and T4, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
C) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), production of T3 and T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
D) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), production of T3 and T4

A

13

13)What stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

A) hypocalcemia
B) low basal metabolic rate
C) cold temperatures
D) hypercalcemia

A

14

14)What is NOT an effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

A) increased reabsorption of calcium ions from fluid in the kidneys
B) increased absorption of calcium ions by the small intestine
C) increased release of calcium ions from bone
D) increased osteoblast activity

D

15

15) Aldosterone regulates:

A) blood iodide ion levels.
B) blood calcium ion levels.
C) extracellular sodium and potassium ion levels.
D) blood glucose levels.

C

16

16) Some potassium-sparing diuretics increase urination without the loss of potassium by working against receptors for:

A) aldosterone.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
D) cortisol.

A

17

17) What first tier hormone stimulates cortisol production?

A) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
B) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
C) growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
D) somatostatin

B

18

18) Excess cortisol could result in:

A) low blood pressure.
B) high blood glucose levels.
C) an alkaline blood pH.
D) increased parasympathetic nervous system activation.

B

19

19) When blood glucose levels are high

A) The pancreas releases glucose.
B) The liver releases glucagon.
C) The liver releases insulin.
D)The pancreas releases insulin.

D

20

20)A liver cell responds to insulin by

A) Releasing insulin.
B) Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
C) Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
D) Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.

D

21

21)What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

A) Muscle cells.
B) Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
C) Intestinal cells.
D) Liver cells.

D

22

22)Body cells that respond to insulin include

A) Muscle cells only.
B) Liver cells only.
C) Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
D) Intestinal cells only.

C

23

23)When blood glucose levels are low

A) Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
B) The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
C) The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
D) The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.

C

24

24)The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called
A) negative feedback.
B) positive feedback.
C) diabetes.
D) homeostasis.

D

25

25)Which of the following effects is NOT associated with the hormone insulin?

A) Synthesis of fat
B) Stimulation of cells to uptake and utilize glucose
C) Gluconeogenesis in the liver
D) Glycogen synthesis

C

26

26)Which pancreatic cells release insulin and glucagon?

A) chromaffin cells
B) chief cells
C) pancreatic islets
D) acinar cells

C

27

27)What is the main function of glucagon?

A) regulate sodium and potassium ion levels
B) raise blood glucose levels
C) lower blood glucose levels
D) regulate blood pressure

B

28

28) The pineal gland produces the hormone __________.

A) melatonin
B) aldosterone
C) oxytocin
D) calcitonin

A

29

29) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) promotes:

A) increased blood pressure.
B) vasodilation.
C) decreased urination.
D) water retention.

B

30

30)High levels of testosterone inhibit the release of:

A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
B) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
C) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
D) growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).

A

31

31) Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?

A) ADH (vasopressin)
B) aldosterone
C) epinephrine
D) cortisol

C

32

32)In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

A) decreased cardiac output
B) decreased sweating
C) decreased or difficulty breathing
D) decreased insulin secretion

D

33

33)Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

A) cool, dry skin
B) low blood glucose
C) slow heart rate
D) heart palpitations

D

34

34)Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a “moon face.”

A) pheochromocytoma
B) Cushing’s disease
C) Addison’s disease

B

35

35) What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

A) aldosterone
B) angiotensin II
C) ADH (vasopressin)
D) cortisol

C

36

36)Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?

A) cAMP
B) IP3
C) tyrosine kinase
D) DAG

B

37

37)Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

A) β receptors
B) α2 receptors
C) α1 receptors

A

38

38)What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

A) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
B) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
C) negative feedback
D) a circadian rhythm of release

C

39

39)Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine ("letdown") reflex?

A) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
B) oxytocin
C) cortisol

B

40

40)Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?

A) prolactin (PRL)
B) GH (growth hormone)
C) oxytocin
D) thyroid hormones

B

41

41)What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

A) control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
B) control secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
C) control secretion of oxytocin
D) control secretion of thyroid hormones

A

42

42)Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

A) hormonal
B) neural
C) humoral
D) enzymatic

D