Medication action

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1

Acetaminophen (Tylenol®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold and reduces fever through its
action on the heat-regulating center of the brain

2

Activated Charcoal (Actidose®, Charcoaide®)

Action: binds and adsorbs ingested toxins that may remain in the GI tract following
ingestion. Once bound, the combined complex is then harmlessly excreted
from the body

3

Adenosine (Adenocard®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: directly acts on sinus pacemaker cells and vagus verve to decrease chronotropic and dromotropic activity without causing negative inotropic effects Temporarily stops the heart and allows it to repolarize
Slows down the heart rate and conductivity through the heart without causing
a decrease in contraction strength

4

Albuterol (Proventil®, Ventolin®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: a beta2 specific sympathomimetic. It relaxes the smooth muscles of the
bronchial tree and peripheral vasculature by stimulating adrenergic receptors
of the sympathetic nervous system.
Beta2 specific sympathomimetic that causes bronchodilation

5

Aminophylline (Amoline®, Somophyllin®, Aminophyllin®)

Action: respiratory stimulant, bronchodilation, mild diuresis, positive inotrope, positive
chronotropy (in large doses).

6

Amiodarone (Cordarone®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: decreases sinus automaticity, reduces the speed of conduction, increases the refractory period of the AV node, prolongs the action potential duration in all cardiac tissue Slows down the conduction in the heart, makes the AV node hold onto the impulse longer to correct the arrhythmia

7

Amyl Nitrite

Action: chemically binds with cyanide and prevents any toxic effects

8

Aspirin (Bayer®, Bufferin®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: blocks pain impulses in the CNS; decreases platelet aggregation
We only administer ASA for the antiplatelet properties

9

Atropine Sulfate

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: inhibits the actions of acetylcholine at parasympathetic receptor sites. These blocked vagal effects result in positive chronotropy and dromotropy without increased inotropy.
Used primarily to treat bradycardias and organophosphate poisonings.
Increases the heart rate by blocking the vagus nerve from stimulation, causing
positive chronotropy and positive dromotropy without increased inotropy

10

Bumetanide (Bumex®)

Action: inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the proximal tubule and the Loop of Henle within the kidneys. Does not have the vasodilatory effects that furosemide does.

11

Calcium Chloride

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: promotes functional integrity of nervous and muscular systems such as cardiac contractility and coagulation of blood. Contains 27.2% elemental calcium Promotes cardiac contractility (+inotropy)

12

Dexamethasone (Decadron®, Hexadrol®)

Action: suppresses acute and chronic inflammation, potentiates relaxation of vascular smooth
muscle by beta-adrenergic agonists, and possibly alters airway hyperactivity

13

Dextrose 50% (D50)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: increases circulating blood glucose levels. Due to its hypertonic qualities, it is a very
short acting osmotic diuretic.
Increases blood glucose

14

Diazepam (Valium®)

Action: potentiates effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters, raises seizure threshold and induces amnesia and sedation

15

Digoxin (Lanoxin®)

Action: increased force and velocity of myocardial systolic contraction, increased AV nodal refractory period, increased total peripheral resistance. Indirectly depresses the SA node and prolongs AV nodal conduction.
Increases inotropic effects and slows down the heart rate indirectly by depressing the SA node

16

Diltiazem (Cardizem®)

Action: decreases peripheral vascular resistance and causes relaxation of vascular smooth muscle resulting in a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Reduces preload and afterload and reduces myocardial oxygen demand. Decreases blood pressure and reduces preload and afterload resulting in a decrease in myocardial oxygen demand

17

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: prevents histamines from reaching the histamine 1 and 2 receptor sites. Short acting and used for symptomatic relief only in cases of excess histamine release (such as anaphylaxis, urticaria etc.). Also used as adjunctive therapy with epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis. Effective as an upper respiratory and sinus-drying agent. Blocks histamines and dries mucous membranes

18

Dobutamine (Dobutrex®)

Action: synthetic catecholamine that stimulates alpha1, beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors. Positive inotropic effects are seen with administration with minimal changes in chronotropic activity or systemic vascular resistance. Dobutamine is useful in the management of CHF when an increase in heart rate is not desired.

Stimulates alpha, beta1 and beta2 receptors along with stimulating inotropic effects

19

Dopamine Hydrochloride (Intropin®)

Action: acts primarily on alpha and beta1 receptors, increasing systemic vascular resistance and exerting a positive inotropic effect on the heart, dilates large vessels, increases heart rate and increases blood pressure.

Peripheral vasoconstriction, large vessel dilation, increases heart rate

20

Epinephrine (Adrenalin®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: stimulates alpha, beta1 and beta2 receptors. Increases systolic pressure, heart rate and cardiac contractility. Stabilizes the cell membrane and decreases the release of histamine

21

Epinephrine Racemic (Micronefrin®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: stimulates beta2 receptors in the lungs causing relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles,
bronchodilation

22

Etomidate (Amidate®)

Action: short acting hypnotic

23

Fentanyl (Duragesic®, Sublimaze®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: sedation and analgesia. Fentanyl is similar to morphine sulfate in pharmacological actions, but with a more prompt onset and less prolonged action.
Blocks pain and makes the patient feel relaxed

24

Flumazenil (Romazicon®)

Action: antagonizes the actions of benzodiazepines on the CNS, antagonizes sedation, recall and psychomotor impairment produced by benzodiazepines.

25

Furosemide (Lasix®)

Action: inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the proximal tubule and the Loop of Henle of the kidneys. Causes diuresis and pools blood in the venous system. Decreases preload through vasodilation
Causes diuresis and pools blood in the venous system to decrease preload
which in turn decreases blood pressure

26

Glucagon (GlucaGen®)

Action: protein released by the pancreas and will cause blood glucose elevation by increasing the breakdown of glycogen to glucose and inhibiting glycogen synthesis. Also exerts positive inotropic action of the heart and decreases renal vascular resistance. May be used in beta-blocker cardiotoxicity refractory to saline infusion therapy. Converts glycogen to glucose ➞ raises blood glucose
Antidote for beta-blocker medications

27

Haloperidol (Haldol®)

Action: strong antidopaminergic and a weak anticholinergic, CNS depression

28

Heparin Sodium

Action: inhibits the clotting cascade by activating specific plasma proteins. Included in the thrombolytic package with aspirin in the active AMI patient
Slows down the clotting cascade and thins the patients blood

29

Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: causes bronchodilation by competitive inhibition of cholinergic receptors on bronchial smooth muscle. Reduces bronchospasm induced by smoke, dust or cold air
Bronchodilates

30

Ketamine Hydrochloride (Ketalar®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: produces anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, bronchodilation, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression.

31

Ketorolac Tromethamine (Toradol®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: potent analgesic that does not possess any sedative or anxiolytic activities

32

Lidocaine (Xylocaine®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: decreases cardiac depolarization and suppresses PVC’s. Raises the ventricular fibrillatory threshold

Raises fibrillatory threshold and suppresses impulses in the ventricles

33

Lorazepam (Ativan®)

Action: suppresses propagation of seizure activity

34

Magnesium Sulfate

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: reduces smooth muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release. Causes uterine relaxation, is used as replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia and as initial treatment for Torsades de Pointes. Considered helpful in treatment for refractory VF/VT
Relaxes smooth muscle, replaces electrolyte

35

Mannitol (Osmitrol®)

Action: promotes the movement of fluid from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Used to treat head injuries to decrease intracranial pressure and in the promotion of urinary exertion of toxic substances.

36

Metoprolol (Lopressor®)

Action: decreases heart rate, conduction velocity, myocardial contractility and cardiac output

37

Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: highly potent synthetic glucocorticoid that suppresses acute and chronic inflammation; potentiates vascular smooth muscle relaxation by beta-adrenergic agonists
Suppresses acute and chronic inflammation

38

Midazolam Hcl (Versed®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: relieves apprehension, impairs memory, anxiolytic, sedation

39

Morphine Sulfate (MS Contin®, Roxanol®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: increases peripheral capacitance, decreases venous return. Promotes analgesia, euphoria and respiratory and physical depression. Secondary effects include depressed responsiveness of alpha-adrenergic receptors (causing vasodilation) and baroreceptor inhibition. Causes decreased pre-load and afterload and will decrease myocardial oxygen demand.
Pain management, dilates coronary arteries, decreases pre-load, decreases myocardial oxygen demand

40

Naloxone (Narcan®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: binds and blocks all opioid/narcotic receptor sites
Antagonizes narcotics/reverses effects of narcotics

41

Nitroglycerin (Nitrobid®, Nitrostat®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: vasodilation, peripheral vasodilation, decreases cardiac workload, decreases myocardial oxygen demand Vasodilation, decreases workload and oxygen demand on the heart, decreases preload

42

Nitrous Oxide/Oxygen 50/50 (Nitronox®)

Action: CNS depression, increases oxygen tension in the blood (this reduces hypoxia)
CNS depression, reduces/eliminates pain

43

Norepinephrine (Levophed®)

Action: alpha and beta1 adrenergic agonist. A potent vasoconstrictor what increases myocardial contractility and peripheral vascular resistance. Because it tends to constrict the renal and mesenteric blood vessels, it is rarely used in the prehospital setting.
Vasoconstricts raising BP, increases contractile force

44

Ondansetron (Zofran®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: selectively blocks serotonin receptors located in the CNS and in the peripheral system on nerve terminals of the vagus nerve that causes nausea
Suppresses nausea

45

Oxygen

Action: reverses hypoxia, helps oxidize glucose and reduces area of infarct

46

Oxytocin (Pitocin®)

Action: stimulates uterine smooth muscle contractions indirectly. Stimulates the mammary glands to increase lactation without increasing the production of milk. During uterine contractions, a transient reduction in uterine blood flow is noted.
Stimulates uterine contraction

47

Pancuronium (Pavulon®)

Action: produces complete muscular relaxation by binding to the cholinergic receptor at the neuromuscular junction, without initiating depolarizing of the muscle. Prevents convulsive muscle spasms, optimizes conditions for intubations and ventilatory support
Blocks nervous control to the cells ➞ relaxes the muscles and causes paralysis

48

Phenytoin (Dilantin®)

Action: inhibits the spread of seizures by promoting sodium efflux from neurons (increases the convulsant threshold), stabilizes the neurons threshold against excitability caused by excess stimulation. Also has been used to treat dig induced atrial and ventricular arrhythmia by stabilizing the sodium influx in the purkinje fibers
Increases the seizure threshold and cardiac cell excitement through sodium movement

49

Pralidoxime (2-PAM®, Protopam®)

Action: reactivates cholinesterase to effectively act as an antidote to organophosphate poisonings

50

Prednisone (Deltasone®, Orapred®, Pediapred®)

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX AND APACK***

Action: suppresses acute and chronic inflammation. Potentiates vascular smooth
muscle relaxation by beta-adrenergic agonists and may alter airway
hyperactivity. Also may be used to reduce posttraumatic spinal cord edema
Suppresses acute and chronic inflammation

51

Propofol (Diprivan®)

Action: produces rapid and brief state of general anesthesia

52

Sodium Bicarbonate

***FOUND IN THE DRUG BOX***

Action: reacts with hydrogen ions to form water and CO2 and thereby acts to buffer metabolic acidosis. (By increasing the plasma concentration of bicarbonate, blood pH rises)
Neutralizes acids in the body and raises the body’s pH

53

Succinylcholine (Anectine®)

Action: binds with cholinergic receptors. It is the drug of choice for terminating laryngospasms and endotracheal intubation. However, because it causes depolarization of the muscle
membrane it causes muscle fasciculation and contraction

54

Thiamine (Betaxin®)

Action: combines with ATP to form a thiamine coenzyme, which is a required component for carbohydrate metabolism. Thiamine prevents severe neurological symptoms, which may result from D50 administration in the chronic alcoholic states if given prior to D50 administration.
Helps metabolize dextrose

55

Verapamil (Isoptin®, Calan®)

Action: decreases atrial automaticity, decreases AV conduction velocity, prolongs the AV nodal refractory period, depresses myocardial contractility, reduces vascular smooth muscle tone and dilates coronary arteries.
Decreases chronotropic, inotropic and dromotropic effects of the heart