CNS Exam 1
The change from 1 cell type to another is known as what?
Which receptor involves the activation of JAK-STAT?
Which receptor involves the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase?
Which receptor involves the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase?
Which receptor has enzymatic activity?
Tyrosine kinase receptor
Which receptor is a ligand-receptor dimer that binds to HRE?
Which receptor stimulates phospholipase C and involves the formation of DAG and IP3?
What are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
Which function of the NS involves receiving internal and external input?
Which function of the NS generates a response?
Which function of the NS involves processing and interpreting sensory stimuli?
What are the 2 divisions of the NS?
The CNS involves what main components?
- Spinal cord
The PNS is the link between what?
The CNS and the rest of the body
Which division correlates to the afferent division?
The efferent division correlates to which division?
Which division of the PNS conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands)?
Motor (efferent) division
Which division of the PNS conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS?
Sensory (afferent) division
The Motor (efferent) division is divided into what to subcategories?
- Somatic NS
- Autonomic NS
Which NS conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles?
Is the somatic NS voluntary or involuntary?
The Autonomic NS conducts impulses from the CNS to where?
- Cardiac muscles
- Smooth muscles
Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary?
The ANS can be divided into what 2 subcategories?
Which division of the ANS mobilizes body systems during activity?
Which division of the ANS conserves energy and promotes house-keeping functions during rest?
The parasympathetic division of the ANS is a.k.a. what?
"Rest and digest"
The sympathetic division of the ANS is a.k.a. what?
"Fight or flight"
Which Glial cell is most abundant in the body?
What are the main functions of astrocytes?
- BBB Formation
- Synaptic formation
- Recycle ions and transmitters
Which Glial cell is "immune-like"?
Which glial cells line ventricles?
Ependymal cells help circulate what?
Which Glial cells form myelin in the CNS?
Which cells form myelin in the PNS?
Which cells act as a protective barrier, support, and provide nutrients to the nerve cell in the periphery?
Gaps in the myelin sheaths along the axon are known as what?
Nodes of Ranvier
Glial cells repeatedly wrap around axon to form what?
Glial cells surround axon but do not repeatedly wrap around it are known as what?
Which neurons are the most common?
What is an example of a multipolar neuron?
- Purkinje cell of cerebellum
- Pyramidal cell
Which neurons are associated with sensory organs?
List an example of a bipolar neuron:
- Olfactory cell
- Retinal cell
Which neurons are sensory neurons in the PNS?
Neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated axons refers to what?
Collection of neuronal cell bodies in brain are known as what?
Collection of neuronal cell bodies in the periphery are known as what?
Bundles of myelinated axons are known as what?
The Difference in charge across the plasma membrane in an unstimulated state is known as what?
Resting membrane potential
List the characteristics of graded potentials:
- Depolarizations or hyperpolarizations
- Short duration
- Proportional to stimulus strength
List the characteristics of Action potentials:
- Brief reversal of membrane potential, from -70mV to +20-30 mV
- Do not decrease in strength with distance
- All or none events
In what axon type would saltatory conduction (action potential jumps from node to node) occur?
Based on the characteristics shown below, what group of myelinated fibers does it describe?
–Conduct action potentials at 2 m/s or less
–SNS and PNS
Based on the characteristics shown below, what group of myelinated fibers does it describe?
–Thick myelin sheaths
–Conduct action potentials at 15-120 m/s
–Motor neurons to skeletal muscles; sensory neurons
Based on the characteristics shown below, what group of myelinated fibers does it describe?
–Conduct action potentials at 3-15 m/s
True or False: Nerve fibers do not differ in speed.
False; do differ
The site of communication between two cells is referred to as what?
Which part of the synapse sends the signal?
The space between pre and post synaptic cells is referred to as what?
Which part of the synapse receive the signal?
Which synapse type is less common?
Electrical synapses are related to what?
Electrical synapses are found where?
- Glial cells
Which synapse type releases and receives neurotransmitters?
These are located in the presynaptic terminal and contain neurotransmitters.
Describe the process of Chemical synaptic transmission:
- Action potential arrives at the axon terminal and causes depolarization of the membrane. The depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ enters the axon terminal.
- Ca2+ interacts with intracellular proteins which cause vesicles to fuse with the plasma membrane and then exocytosis of neurotransmitters occurs.
- Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on postsynaptic membrane.
- Receptor binding of neurotransmitters causes
conformational changes in the receptors that open the ion channels.
As a result, graded potentials occur in the postsynaptic cell.
- Whether the graded potential is excitatory (depolarization) or inhibitory (hyperpolarization) depends on the receptors present on the postsynaptic cell.
- Neurotransmitter effects are terminated. In this example, the neurotransmitter is degraded by an enzyme. Neurotransmitter action may also be terminated by reuptake through a transporter or diffusion away from the synapse.
An ionic current flows between adjacent cells refers to which synapse type?
A local depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane is known as a what?
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
EPSPs help produce an action potential in what location of the postsynaptic neuron?
With EPSPs there is an increase in permeability to what?
A local hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane is referred to as a what?
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
IPSPs drive the neuron away from what?
In regards to IPSPs there is an increase in permeability to what?
The following bullets describe what?
–EPSPs or IPSPs are generated in quick succession
–One (or more) presynaptic neurons can influence the postsynaptic neuron
–2 excitatory stimuli close in time cause EPSPs that add together
The following bullets describe what?
–Postsynaptic neuron is stimulated simultaneously by many presynaptic terminals
–Postsynaptic neuron generates EPSPs or IPSPs based on simultaneous stimulation from more than one presynaptic terminal or neuron
Repeated or continuous use of a synapse enhances presynpatic neuron’s ability to excite postsynaptic neuron relates to what?
Ca2+ in presynaptic neuron causes release of more what?
Ca2+ influx in postsynaptic neuron activates what?
Reduction in amount of neurotransmitter released from presynaptic terminal refers to what?
What is an example of presynaptic inhibition?
enkephalins and endorphins on pain transmission
What is an example of synaptic potentiation?
long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus
The sequential stimulation of neurons that causes an anticipated response refers to what?
What is an example of serial processing?
Information is processed by many parts of the circuitry refers to what?
What is an example of higher level mental functioning?
What type of neuronal circuit involves one input, and many outputs?
Diverging circuits can be referred to as what?
What type of neuronal circuit relates to many inputs, and one output?
Converging circuits can be referred to as what?
Give an example of a diverging circuit:
A single brain neuron activating more than 100 motor neurons in the spinal cord and thousands of skeletal muscle fibers.
Give an example of a converging circuit:
Different sensory stimuli can all elicit the same memory.
A signal travels through a chain of neurons, each feeding back to previous neurons describes what type of neuronal circuit?
A reverberating circuit can be referred to as a what?
A reverberating circuit controls what specifically?
Which neuronal circuit relates to a signal stimulating neurons arranged in parallel arrays that eventually converge on a single output cell?
Parallel after discharge circuit
Give an example of a reverberating circuit:
- sleep-wake cycle
- repetitive motor activity (walking)
In parallel after-discharge circuit, impulses reach output cell at different times, causing a burst of impulses called what?
Give an example of a parallel after-discharge circuit:
May be involved in exacting mental processes such as mathematical calculations
Where is Acetylcholine released from?
Which drug prevents breakdown of ACh by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase?
Describe the synthesis of Acetylcholine:
- Choline is transported into the axon terminal.
- Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) catalyzes the acetylation of choline with acetyl CoA to form acetylcholine (ACh).
- ACh is transported into storage synaptic vesicles via a transporter (VAT).
- ACh is released via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism and exocytosis.
- ACh is degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
Which drug inhibits release of ACh by altering fusion proteins?
Botulinum toxin (Botox)
What are the main functions of ACh in the CNS?
ACh activates which receptors?
- Nicotinic ACh
- Muscarinic ACh
Nicotinic ACh receptors are what kind of receptors?
What is the function of Nicotinic ACh receptors?
Cause an influx of Na+
Nicotinic ACh receptors cause what kind of response inside of the cell?
Do Nicotinic ACh receptors cause a graded depolarization of hyperpolarization?
depolarization (because of influx of Na+)
What is the structure of a Nicotinic ACh receptor?
Muscarinic ACh receptors are what?
The M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors bind to which G protein?
The M2 and M4 muscarinic ACh receptors bind to which G protein?
Do the M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors have an excitatory or inhibitory affect?
excitatory (because of binding to Gq)
Do the M2 and M4 muscarinic ACh receptors have an excitatory or inhibitory affect?
inhibitory (because of binding to Gi)
Describe the synthesis of Catecholamines:
- Tyrosine is transported into the axon terminal.
- Tyrosine is converted to Dopa by tyrosine hydroxylase.
- Dopa is converted to dopamine by dopa decarboxylase.
- Dopamine is transported into storage synaptic vesicles via a transporter (VMAT).
- Dopamine is converted to Norepinephrine (NE) inside the vesicle by dopamine-β-hydroxylase. (NE can be converted to epinephrine (E) by PMNT.)
- NE is released via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism and exocytosis.
- NE action is primarily terminated by reuptake via NET. Enzymatic degradation can also occur. Reuptake by a transporter on the postsynaptic cell may occur in some cells.
Which drugs prevent reuptake of NE by inhibiting the transporter (NET)?
What are the 3 Catecholamines?
What are the 3 biogenic amines?
What is the transporter responsible for reuptake of NE and E?
What is the transporter responsible for the reuptake of DA?
Catecholamines can be enzymatically degraded by which two types of enzymes?
- Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
- Catechol-O-methyl (COMT)
MAO is located where?
COMT is located where?
What is the major metabolite produced with enzymatic degradation of NE and E?
What is the major metabolite produced with enzymatic degradation of DA?
Where is NE released from in the CNS?
- locus coeruleus
- pons and medulla nuclei
Where is NE released from in the PNS?
Sympathetic postganglionic fibers of ANS
What are the main functions of NE?
- Sympathetic Nervous System: blood pressure, heart rate
Norepinephrine activates which receptors?
The Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor is a GPCR coupled to which G protein?
The Beta-1,2,3 adrenergic receptors are GPCRs that couple to which G protein?
The Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are GPCRs that couple to which G protein?
Where is most E found?
E activates which receptors?
The death of neurons following prolonged excitatory synaptic transmission is known as what?
Excitotoxicity is associated with which amino acid?
DA is released from where?
Brainstem [Substantia nigra pars compacta & Ventral tegmental area (VTA)]
DA is released from the hypothalamus following which pathway?
The Tuberoinfundibular pathway inhibits what?
The release of DA via the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brainstem follows which pathway?
The Nigrostriatal pathway is what type of pathway?
The release of DA via the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brainstem relates to which pathways?
The Mesolimbic pathway relates to what?
Reward (feelings of pleasure)
The Mesocortical pathway relates to what?
- Social Behavior
Dopamine (DA) activates which receptors?
D1 and D5 Dopamine receptors couple to which G protein?
Which G protein couples to the Dopamine receptors (D2,D3, & D4)?
Describe the synthesis of Serotonin:
- Tryptophan is transported into the axon terminal.
- Tryptophan is converted to 5-hydroxytryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase.
- 5-hydroxytryptophan is converted to serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) by dopa decarboxylase.
- 5-HT is transported into storage synaptic vesicles via a transporter (VMAT).
- 5-HT is released via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism and exocytosis.
- 5-HT action is primarily terminated by reuptake via SERT. Enzymatic degradation can also occur.
The termination of action for Serotonin is what?
Serotonin is converted into what in the Pineal gland?
Which transporter is responsible for the reuptake of Serotonin?
Where is SERT found?
- Presynaptic axon terminals in CNS
Serotonin can be enzymatically degraded by which 2 enzymes?
- Aldehyde dehydrogenase
What is the major metabolite of Serotonin?
Where is Serotonin released from?
Brainstem (raphe nuclei)
What are the main functions of Serotonin?
Which drugs prevent reuptake of 5-HT by inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT)?
True or False: All 5HT receptors are GPCRs except for one.
Which 5HT receptor is a ligand gated ion channel (ionotropic receptor)?
The 5-HT1 receptors are GPCRs that bind to which G protein?
What are found on the neurons from raphe nuclei?
5-HT1A receptors are typically found where?
somatodendritic regions (soma and dendritic region)
5-HT1D/1B receptors are typically found where?
presynaptic axon terminals
True or False: There are no postsynaptic 5-HT1 receptors in other brain regions.
False; there are
Which Serotonin receptors are associated with the activation of PLC (and therefore are assoc. w/ Gq)?
In association with 5-HT2A receptors, how can slow depolarization occur in brain areas such as the pre-frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens with these receptors?
By the inhibition of K+ channels
Which serotonin receptor is associated with a fast depolarization?
5-HT3 (ligand gated ion channel)
Where are the 5-HT3 receptors found?
Area postrema of brainstem
The Area postrema of the brainstem is associated with what?
Where is Histamine released from?
What are the main functions of Histamine in the CNS?
What are the main functions of Histamine in the PNS?
- Allergic reactions
- Stomach acid release
What is the termination of action of Histamine?
- Histamine methyltransferase
Histamine activates what kind of receptors?
What are the subtypes of the Histamine receptors?
The H1 Histamine receptor couples to which G protein?
The H2 Histamine receptor couples to which G protein?
The H3 Histamine receptor couples to which G protein?
Describe the synthesis of Histamine:
- Histidine is transported into nerve terminal.
- Histidine decarboxylase catalyzes conversion of histidine to histamine.
- Histamine is stored in vesicles.
- Histamine is released via exocytosis.
- Histamine interacts with its receptors.
- Histamine is metabolized by histamine methyltransferase, which is followed by MAO oxidation.
Which drugs are first generation H1 antagonists, that cause somnolence (sleepiness)?
The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain is known as what?
Damage or lesions to the Parietal Association Cortex can result in what disorder?
Contralateral neglect syndrome
What is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord?
What is the Major excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS?
GABA is an important messenger where?
What converts Glutamate into GABA?
What does GAD use as a cofactor to convert Glutamate into GABA?
Describe the synthesis of GABA:
- Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts Glutamate to GABA
- Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIATT) transports GABA into storage synaptic vesicles
- GABA is released via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism and exocytosis.
What is the termination of action for GABA?
Which GABA transporter is responsible for the reuptake?
GABA can also be terminated via metabolism. GABA is metabolized inside the cell by what? Then by what?
GABA transaminase, then semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Semialdehyde dehydrogenase is converted to what?
What is a metabolite of GABA?
Which GABA receptor is a ligand gated chloride channel pentamer?
Activation of GABAA receptor causes influx of what ions?
Cl- (leading to hyperpolarization)
How many molecules of GABA bind to the alpha subunits?
The gamma subunit associated with GABA allows for the binding of which drugs?
Which GABA receptor is a heterodimer of R1 and R2 subunits?
The GABAB receptor is a GPCR that couples to which G protein?
Where is the GABAB receptor located?
- Presynaptic autoreceptors
- Postsynaptic receptors
Describe the neurotransmission (synthesis) of Glycine:
- Serine transhydroxymethylase converts serine to glycine
- VIATT transports glycine into storage vesicles
- Glycine is released via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism and exocytosis.
- Reuptake of glycine by the glycine transporter terminates glycine’s action in the synapse
Glycine is a what at glutamate receptors?
Glycine activates what kind of receptors?
True or False: Glycine receptors are GPCRs
False (ligand gated chloride channels)
True or False: Glycine is a pentamer (alpha and beta subunits)
Glycine binds to what subunits?
What is a glycine antagonist that can result in Opisthotonus (spasms of skeletal muscles causing backward arching of the head, neck, and spine)?
Describe the Neurotransmission of Glutamate:
- Glutaminase converts glutamine to glutamate
- VGLUT transports glutamate into storage vesicles
- Glutamate undergoes reuptake by EAAT/GATT, an excitatory amino acid transporter
Glutamate activates what receptors?
What are the 3 subtypes of ionotropic receptors (assoc with Glu)?
What are the 8 subtypes of metabotropic receptors assoc. w/ glutamate?
NMDA receptors involve the flux of what ions through channel?
- K+ (efflux)
- Ca2+ (influx)
AMPA and Kainate receptors involve the flux of what ions through channel?
Glutamate is an important messenger at inhibitory or excitatory synapses?
NMDA receptors are ligand gated and what?
Activation of the NMDA receptor requires what 2 things?
- co-agonist glycine
The Activation of the NMDA receptor requires what to remove the Mg2+ plug?
graded depolarizations or EPSPs
Which glutamate receptors are involved in long term potentiation, a mechanism involved in learning and memory?
True or False: All glutamate receptors are ionotropic.
False; Group I, II, and III are GPCRs
The Death of neurons following prolonged excitatory synaptic transmission refers to what?
Excitotoxicity is associated which amino acid?
- VTA DA neurons release DA in the where that leads to feelings of pleasure, reward
Which neurons can inhibit VTA DA neurons?
Which neurons can activate VTA DA neurons?
Which neurons can inhibit GABA neurons
Opioid neurons cause WHAT of VTA DA neurons
Which receptors are referred to as retrograde messengers?
What are the 2 major endocannabinoids?
- 2-AG (mostly responsible)
Describe the synthesis and degradation of Endocannabinoids:
- AEA is synthesized from NAPE (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine) by NAPE-PLD (NAPE-specific phospholipase D)
- AEA is degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) to arachidonic acid (AA) and ethanolamine
- 2-AG is synthesized from DAG by DAGLα (diacylglycerol lipase-α)
- 2-AG is degraded by MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase) to AA and glycerol
Endocannabinoids are produced by postsynaptic terminals and travel to presynaptic neuron to activate what?
Cannabinoid receptors are GPCRs that couple to which G protein?
Majority of CNS cannabinoid effects are thought to be mediated by which receptors
Activation of CB1 receptors decreases what?
CB1 Receptors are located where?
- Basal ganglia
- cerebral cortex
CB2 Receptors are located where?
- Immune system
- Few brain areas
Polypeptides synthesized WHERE are larger than final peptide released at axon terminal
Describe the synthesis of peptides:
- Synthesized in rough ER
- Propeptide packaged into vesicles by the Golgi
- Final processing to neuropeptide occurs in vesicles
- Released by presynaptic neuron
- Inactivated by peptidases
These peptides Transmit information about pain
Substance P is assoc. w/ which receptor?
neurokinin 1 (NK1)
NK1 activates what?
These inhibit pain transmission:
Describe the summary of Substance P:
- Pain stimulus leads to action potential generation and causes release of Glu and Sub P from presynaptic neuron.
- Glu and Sub P activate their receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, which causes depolarizations and leads to action potential generation, thus the transmission of pain to the brain.
Describe the summary of Opioids:
- Opioids activate their receptors on the presynaptic neuron, which leads to hyperpolarization and thus prevents the release of Glu and Sub P.
- Glu or Sub P receptors are not activated on postsynaptic neuron, thus no action potential generation and no pain transmission.
- Opioids can also activate their receptors on the postsynaptic neuron and cause hyperpolarization inside of the cell, which prevents action potential generation, and thus prevents pain transmission to the brain.
True or False: Polypeptides synthesized in cell bodies can produce more than one type of neuropeptide.
Which part of the brain is thought to be involved with making plans, personality, etc.?
Which part of the brain relates to receiving and integrating sensory sensations/sensory info of the body?
Which part of the brain corresponds to visual function?
Which part of the brain relates to hearing or audition?
Which part of the brain separates the frontal and parietal lobe?
What is just in front of the central sulcus?
What is just behind the central sulcus?
A ridge or bump in cortical tissue is known as what?
A very deep sulcus is known as a what?
What separates the cerebral hemispheres (right and left)?
What area of the brain separates the the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?
Which part of the brain separates the frontal lobe from the temporal and parietal lobe?
Cavities or hollowed areas found in the brain are referred to as what?
When are ventricles formed?
During embryonic development
Ventricles in the brain are filled with what?
The lateral ventricles connect to the third ventricle via the what?
The third ventricle connects to the fourth ventricle via the what?
The fourth ventricle of the brain empties into the what?
What types of cells are found on the walls of the ventricles?
Ependymal (help move CSF)
The lateral ventricles are associated with what part of the brain?
The third ventricle is associated with what part of the brain?
The fourth ventricle is associated with what part of the brain?
Small holes or openings that allow for CSF to exit the ventricular system are known as what?
The fourth ventricle is associated with how many apertures?
3 (2 lateral and 1 median)
Once CSF exits the ventricular system via apertures where does it go?
Where is our conscious mind found?
How thick is the cerebral cortex?
The subarachnoid space is associated with the what?
What does the cerebral cortex contain?
- Blood vessels
How many layers of cells make up the cerebral cortex?
What are the 2 main cell types found in the cerebral cortex?
- Stellate cells (have short axons)
- Pyramidal cells (have long axons)
What are the 3 functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
What is the term used to describe how the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and how the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body?
Which cortex of the brain consciously controls skilled movements of skeletal muscles?
Primary motor cortex
The primary motor cortex is located where in regards to the central sulcus?
Which cortex of the brain plans movements?
Which cortex of the brain correlates to voluntary eye movements?
Frontal eye field
Which cortex of the brain is the motor speech area?
What is used to display or represent that the amount of cortical tissue that is devoted to controlling different muscle groups in the body?
Which sensory cortex receives information from somatic sensory receptors and propioceptors?
Primary somatosensory cortex
Which sensory cortex integrates sensory inputs?
Somatosensory association cortex
Which sensory cortex receives visual information from the retina of the eye?
Primary visual cortex
Which sensory cortex interprets visual stimuli?
Visual association area
Which sensory cortex receives information from the inner ear?
Primary auditory cortex
Which sensory cortex is associated with the perception of sound stimulus?
Auditory association area
What represents that a certain amount of cortical tissue devoted to a particular body part, the more sensitive that body part is?
Which sensory cortex is a medial aspect of the temporal lobe that detects smells?
What 3 sensory cortices are found in the insula?
- Gustatory cortex
- Visceral sensory area
- Vestibular cortex
Which sensory cortex relates to internal sensations (ex. full bladder, stomachache, etc.)?
Visceral sensory area
Which sensory cortex is associated with the ear and balance?
Which sensory cortex is responsible for taste?
The insula is sometimes referred to as the what?
5th lobe of the brain
What allows us to give meaning to the information we receive, store it in memory, decide on actions, and more?
Which association area is related to planning for voluntary activity, decision making, personality traits, etc.)?
Prefrontal association cortex (anterior association area)
Which association area is mostly on the inner and bottom surface of the temporal lobe and is associated with motivation, emotion, and memory?
Limbic association cortex
Which association area correlates to the integration of all sensory input and is important in language?
Parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex (posterior association area)
The right hemisphere of the cerebrum relates to what?
The left hemisphere of the cerebrum relates to what?
Each hemisphere "specializes" in certain functions relates to what in regards to the cerebrum?
This refers to one hemisphere of the cerebrum being more inclined to certain functions than the other (ex. the left hemisphere being associated with language more than the right):
What connects the hemispheres?
What connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum?
These connect parts of the same hemisphere:
Give an example of short association fibers:
Give an example of long association fibers:
White matter represents what?
What connects the cortex to lower brain areas?
Which projection fibers bring info into the cerebral cortex?
Which projection fibers take info from the cerebral cortices and connect it to lower brain areas?
List some examples of projection fibers:
- Internal capsule
- Corona radiata
Masses of gray matter deep within cerebral white matter refer to the what?
What are the functions of the basal ganglia?
- Control movement
- Inhibit muscle tone throughout the body
- Select and maintain purposeful motor activity while suppressing useless or unwanted patterns of movement
- Monitor and coordinate slow, sustained contractions
- Modify ongoing activity in motor pathways
- Do not act directly on motor neurons
The Caudate and Putamen of the Basal ganglia are referred to as the what?
The Putamen and the Globus Pallidus are referred to as the what?
Net effect of activation by glutamate or dopamine:
Excitation of thalamus--> Movement
This refers to which pathway?
Net effect of activation:
Inhibition of the thalamus--> inhibition of movement
This refers to which pathway?
Net effect of dopamine is to inhibit the indirect pathway
Allows excitation of the thalamus--> Movement
This refers to which pathway?
Substantia nigra pars compacta to striatum refers to which pathway?
The degeneration of dopaminergic fibers in nigrostriatal pathway refers to what disease?
What 3 components make up the Diencephalon?
What is the “relay station” between cortex and rest of the brain and body?
The thalamus is associated with what functions?
- motor activity
- cortical arousal
What component of the brain helps the body maintain homeostasis?
The pneumonic HEAL relates to the hypothalamus and what components it relates to. Name each component of the pneumonic.
What important area of the hypothalamus is directly related to food intake?
The arcuate nucleus are related to what neurons?
POMC is a precursor that is cleaved to what?
What are the functions of melanocortins?
Reduce food intake
These neurons are also associated with the arcuate nucleus and promote food intake:
Which drug activates 5-HT2C receptors, which increases production of melanocortins and reduces food intake?
Locaserin binds to which G protein?
Locaserin binding to Gq, leads to what?
closure of K+ ion channels
There are 5-HT2C receptors on what in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus?
The use of the drug Locaserin leads to a feeling of what?
Which drug binds to NET (possibly DAT) and causes release of NE (possibly DA) from presynaptic neurons?
Phentermine is what kind of drug (what is it's class)?
Sympathomimetic (similar to amphetamine)
Which neurotransmitters act on hypothalamic areas to reduce food intake and promote satiety?
Which drug is a combination product that has an anticonvulsant that has properties that lead to weight loss?
Qsymia (Phentermine and Topiramate)
The sleep-wake cycle is associated with what part of the brain?
Why is the hypothalamus an important component of the endocrine system?
Releases hormones that act on pituitary gland (either activate or inhibit)
There are clusters of groups of neurons that regulate what?
The hypothalamus is associated with what system that relates to emotion?
What are the 2 main components of the epithalamus?
- Pineal body
The pineal body is responsible for secreting what?
The habenula is responsible in helping with what?
Emotions (limbic system)- specifically negative emotions
What is the oldest part of our brain (in evolutionary terms)?
What are the 3 components of the brainstem?
- Medulla Oblongata
What are the three main parts of the midbrain?
- Cerebral peduncles
- Cerebellar peduncles
- Corpora quadrigemina (tectum)
Which part of the midbrain is associated with the corticospinal motor tracts?
Which part of the midbrain connects the brainstem to the cerebellum?
What are the different portions of the tegmentum (found in the midbrain)?
- Periaqueductal gray (PAG)
- Substantia nigra
- Red nucleus
- Cranial nerves
Which portion of the tegmentum is associated with pain suppression?
The PAG of the tegmentum links what two things?
Amygdala to ANS
The Substantia nigra is associated with what neurotransmitter?
What is the function of the Red Nucleus of the Tegmentum?
What are the two main portions of the Pons?
- Pontine nuclei
- Cranial nerves
The Pontine nuclei connects what two things together?
Motor cortex to cerebellum
The middle cerebellar peduncles of the pontine nuclei connect to the what?
What are the main portions of the medulla oblongata?
- Inferior cerebellar peduncles
- Inferior olivary nuclei
- Medial lemniscal tract: ascending sensory tracts
Which portion of the medulla oblongata relates to sensory info on muscles and joints?
Inferior olivary nuclei
Which portion of the medulla oblongata connects to the cerebellum?
Inferior cerebellar peduncles
Which portion of the medulla oblongata is associated with Cross-over?
What are some centers associated with the medulla oblongata?
- Cardiovascular center
- Cardiac Center
- Vasomotor center
- Respiratory center
What are the 3 lobes of the cerebellum?
- Anterior lobe
- Posterior lobe
- Flocculonodular lobe
What lobes of the cerebellum coordinate body movements?
- Anterior lobe
- Posterior lobe
What is the function of the flocculonodular lobe?
Adjust posture to maintain balance
The cerebellum has an outer cortex comprised of what?
What in the cerebellum are what receive sensory info?
Once purkinje cells of the cerebellum receive info, where is that info sent?
Deep cerebellar nuclei
What are the 3 cerebellar peduncles associated with the cerebellum?
The Superior cerebellar peduncles connect to the what?
The middle cerebellar peduncles extend from where to where?
pons to cerebellum
The inferior cerebellar peduncles extend from where to where?
medulla to cerebellum
Networks of neurons in the brain are referred to as what?
Functional brain systems
Which system of the brain is known as the "emotional brain"?
The pneumonic "HOME" relates to the limbic system and what it is associated with. What does each letter stand for?
- Emotions and Drives
Long lasting enhancement of synaptic activity is referred to as what?
Long term potentiation (LTP)
LTP is a form of what?
Neural basis for learning and memory is known as what?
What key structure of the limbic system is associated with homeostasis?
What key structure of the limbic system is associated with olfaction?
What key structure of the limbic system is associated with Memory?
What key structure of the limbic system is associated with emotions and drives?
The reticular formation extends through the what?
The reticular formation projects to what parts of the brain?
The reticular formation of the brain is related to motor output to where?
The reticular activating system (RAS) is associated with what?
- Acts as a filter (filters incoming sensory info coming into brain)
The raphe nuclei produces what neurotransmitter?
The locus coeruleus produces what neurotransmitter?
The substantia nigra produces what neurotransmitter?
What records patterns of neuronal activity in the cortex?
Brain Function Electroencephalogram (EEG)
What are regular, rhythmic waves where a person would be awake, but relaxed on an EEG?
If a person is alert, but concentrating, what waves would most likely be displayed on an EEG?
If a person is in deep sleep, then what high amplitude waves would be displayed?
Which EEG waves are most common in children?
Which stage of sleep relates to where relaxation begins; EEG shows alpha waves; arousal is easy?
NREM stage 1
Which stage of sleep relates to EEG being dominated by delta waves; arousal is difficult; bed-wetting, night terrors, and sleepwalking may occur?
NREM stage 4
Which stage of sleep relates to sleep deepening; theta and delta waves appear; vital signs decline?
NREM stage 3
Which stage of sleep relates to skeletal muscles being inactively inhibited; and most dreaming occurs?
Which stage of sleep relates to irregular EEG with sleep spindles; arousal more difficult?
NREM stage 2
Storage and retrieval of information or the ability to recall or recognize previous experience is known as what?
Short-term memory (working memory) is limited to how many chunks of info?
Which memory type has limitless capacity?
Which type of memory is associated with fact?
Which type of memory is associated with skills?
Which type of memory is associated with physical activity or "muscle memory"?
Which type of memory would relate to things such as fear, anger, happiness, etc.?
What are the functions of the meninges?
- Cover and protect CNS
- Protect blood vessels
- Contain CSF
- Subdivide cranial cavity
What are the 3 connective tissue membranes of the meninges?
- Dura mater
- Arachnoid mater
- Pia mater
This is where the two layers of the dura mater separate:
The dural sinuses allow for the collection and drainage of what?
This is where the dura mater extends itself into cranial cavities:
Which portion of the dural septa extends into the longitudinal fissure?
Which portion of the dural septa extends into the vermis?
Which portion of the dural septa goes into the transverse fissure?
What portion of the arachnoid mater contains CSF?
What on the arachnoid mater allow CSF to be absorbed into venous blood?
Pia mater is attached to what?
What are the functions of the CSF?
- Liquid cushion
- Reduces weight of brain
- Nourishes the brain
- Removes waste products
What manufactures CSF in the brain?
CSF moves through what?
What helps the movement of CSF?
Cilia of ependymal cells
The CSF leaves lateral ventricles through what?
CSF reaches fourth ventricle via the what?
CSF leaves the fourth ventricle via what?
medial and lateral apertures
Where does CSF enter once it leaves the fourth ventricle?
CSF is drained into the blood via what?
List the characteristics of the structure of the BBB:
- Continuous capillaries, tight junctions between endothelial cells
- Thick basement membrane
- Foot processes of astrocytes encase capillaries
What are the functions of the BBB?
- Facilitated diffusion of nutrients: glucose, essential amino acids, some electrolytes
- Lipid soluble substances gain entry
- Restrict entry of large proteins
What parts of the brain does the BBB not cover?
- Brainstem: area postrema
The BBB is where there are what in the brain?
What surrounds and protects the spinal cord?
Reflexes are examples of what?
The cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement have groups of nerves that go out to where?
This is the end of spinal cord tissue:
This refers to the nerves that extend beyond spinal cord tissue:
What is the connective tissue that helps hold the spinal cord in place?
What becomes the central canal of the spinal cord?
What is the place where the dorsal and ventral root join together?
Afferent fibers from peripheral sensory neurons refers to which portion of the spinal cord?
This is a collection of cell bodies of sensory neurons located on the dorsal root:
Dorsal root ganglia
The ventral root of the spinal cord is formed by what?
The ventral root has efferent fibers from the ventral (anterior) horn to where?
The ventral root has efferent fibers from the lateral horn to where?
Gray matter of the spinal cord is in what locations?
- Dorsal (posterior) horn
- Ventral (anterior) horn
- Lateral horn
The Dorsal (posterior) horn contains what?
The ventral (anterior) horn contains what?
somatic motor neurons (involved with skeletal muscle)
The lateral horn contains what?
Autonomic motor neurons (involved with visceral organs)
What are the 4 areas of the gray matter?
- Somatic sensory (SS)
- Visceral sensory (VS)
- Visceral motor (VM)
- Somatic motor (SM)
What are the 3 directions in which white matter runs?
What are the most common directions in which white matter runs?
Ascending and Descending
Ascending white matter is involved with what kind of info?
Descending white matter relates to what kind of info?
Transverse white matter relates to what?
One side to the other
Major ascending or descending pathways cross-over or decussate where?
Major ascending and descending pathways involve how many neurons?
Major ascending and descending pathways are what?
First order neurons are associated with ascending pathways. These go from the skin to where?
SC or brainstem
Cell bodies are found where in regards to ascending pathways?
Info will be stored where in a cranial nerve (in relation to first order neurons)?
Cranial root ganglion
Info will be stored where in the rest of the body (meaning not in a cranial nerve in first order neurons)?
Dorsal root ganglion
Second order neurons in ascending pathways will go from the spinal cord to where?
Thalamus or cerebellum
In regards to second order neurons, where are the cell bodies found?
Dorsal horn of SC or Medullary nuclei
What occurs specifically with a 2nd order neuron?
Third order neurons go from where to where?
Thalamus to cortex
The cell bodies of third order neurons are where?
Which ascending pathways transmit impulses to the sensory cortex?
- Dorsal column-medial lemniscal
Which ascending pathway is associated with pain, temperature, crude touch and pressure?
Which ascending pathway transmits impulses to cerebellum about muscles or tendons?
Which ascending pathways are contralateral?
- Dorsal column-medial lemniscal
Spinothalamic pathways decussate where?
Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathways decussate where?
Which pathways do not decussate or are ipsilateral?
Which ascending pathway conduct sensory perception that can be localized?
Dorsal column-medial lemniscal
Which descending pathways correlate with speed and precision of fine/skilled movements?
Direct pathways/pyrimidal tracts
Indirect pathways/extrapyramidal tracts are associated with what?
- Balance and posture
- Coarse limb movements
- Head, neck and eye movements (for the visual field)
Upper motor neurons of descending pathways go from where to where?
cortex or subcortical areas to SC
Lower motor neurons of descending pathways are from where?
ventral horn neurons
Lower motor neurons of descending pathways innervate what?
Ventral pyramidal/corticospinal tracts decussate where?
Lateral pyramidal/corticospinal tracts decussate where?
pyramids of medulla
Pyramidal/corticospinal tracts are associated with what?
Neurons of cerebrum and cerebellum synapse with intermediary nuclei relates to which descending pathway?
Axons from intermediary nuclei form the what?
What are 2 examples of indirect pathways?
- Rubrospinal tract
- Reticulospinal tract
The upper motor neuron comes from where in the rubrospinal tract?
The rubrospinal tract is thought to be involved with what?
muscle tone in distal limbs
The upper motor neuron comes from where in the reticulospinal tract?
The reticulospinal tract is thought to be involved with what?
Muscle tone and visceral motor functions
This is due to damage to dorsal roots or sensory tracts?
Paresthesias (loss of sensation)
Damage to ventral root or lower motor neurons would result in what disorder?
Flaccid paralysis will result in what?
- No muscle movement
- Muscle atrophy (shrinking)
Damage to upper motor neurons would result in what disorder?
Which spinal cord trauma would affect only the lower limbs (damage to thoracic region)?
Which spinal cord trauma would affect all 4 limbs (damage to cervical region)?
Paralysis of one side of the body (reflecting a brain injury) relates to what?
Irregular stimulation of muscles by spinal reflex activity (muscles remain healthy longer, but shorten permanently) refers to what type of paralysis?
Awareness of stimuli relates to what?
How we interpret stimuli relates to what?
What type of sensory receptors respond to external stimuli?
What type of sensory receptors respond to stimuli that occur internally?
Which type of sensory receptor's location is more restricted than interoceptors?
Which type of sensory receptors are not exposed?
Which type of sensory receptors involve nerve endings that may be exposed?
Nonencapsulated (free) nerve endings relate to what types of stimuli?
What are some other free nerve endings?
- Tactile (Merkel) discs
- Hair follicle receptors
Tactile (Merkel) discs respond to what?
Hair follicle receptors detect what?
Which encapsulated nerve endings have the ability to detect simultaneous stimulation at two points on the skin (two-point discrimination)?
Tactile/Meissner's corpuscles are found only in what?
Which encapsulated nerve endings correspond to deep pressure and vibration?
Which encapsulated nerve endings correspond to deep and continuous pressure?
Bulbous corpuscles/Ruffini endings
Which encapsulated nerve endings correspond to inhibiting contracting muscle?
Which encapsulated nerve endings correspond to detecting muscle stretch and resists stretch?
Lamellar/Pacinian corpuscles are found where?
- SubQ tissue
Bulbous corpuscles/Ruffini endings are found where?
- SubQ tissue
Which encapsulated nerve endings correspond to monitoring stretch of joints?
Joint kinesthetic receptors
What are the 4 types of receptors that correspond to joint kinesthetic receptors?
- lamellar corpuscles
- bulbous corpuscles
- free nerve endings
- tendon organ-like
Which level of the sensory system corresponds to sensory receptors?
Which level of the sensory system corresponds to ascending pathways?
Which level of the sensory system corresponds to circuits in the cerebral cortex?
In regards to processing at the receptor level, strength, duration, pattern of stimulus corresponds to frequency of what?
The change in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus relates to what?
These receptors adapt to a stimulus quickly:
Fast adapting/phasic receptors
These receptors adapt to a stimulus slowly:
Slow adapting/tonic receptors
Give an example of fast adapting/phasic receptors:
Lamellar and tactile corpuscles
Give and example of slow adapting/tonic receptors:
What are the three types of ascending pathways?
- Spinocerebellar tracts
Nonspecific ascending pathways relate to what?
- Crude touch
Specific ascending pathways relate to what?
- Discriminative touch
- conscious proprioception
Spinocerebellar tracts relate to what?
A detection of a stimulus is referred to as:
The intensity of a stimulus is referred to as:
The site and pattern of a stimulus is referred to as:
The complex aspects of a stimulus is referred to as:
Submodalities of stimulus are referred to as:
Familiar or unfamiliar patterns are referred to as:
Bundles of axons surrounded by connective tissue are called what?
Which nerve types may regenerate?
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
What are the 3 functions of the cranial nerves?
Olfactory nerves are associated with what?
Damage of the olfactory nerve can result in what?
Anosmia (loss of smell)
Optic nerves are associated with what?
Transmitting visual information
Damage to the optic nerve can result in what?
- Anopsia (visual defects)
- Blindness on affected side
- Damage beyond optic chiasma: partial visual losses
The oculomotor nerves are associated with what?
Moving the eye (motor)
What is the parasympathetic function of the oculomotor nerves?
- Miosis (pupillary constriction)
- Accommodation (focus for near vision)
Damage to the oculomotor nerves can result in what?
- Ptosis (droopy eyelid)
The trochlear nerves are associated with what?
moving the eye (motor)
Damage to the trochlear nerve can result in what?
Which cranial nerves are the main sensory nerves for the face and are responsible for chewing?
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerves?
Damage to the trigeminal nerves can result in what?
Tic doulourex or trigeminal neuralgia (stabbing, excruciating pain)
What is the function of the Abducens nerves?
Moving the eye
Damage to the abducens nerve can result in what?
Which cranial nerves are associated with motor activity of facial muscles:
Damage of the facial nerves can result in what?
- Bell's palsy (paralysis of facial muscles on affected side)
- Partial loss of taste
What viral infection can cause Bell's palsy?
Herpes Simplex 1
The vestibulocochlear nerve is associated with what?
Damage to the cochlear portion of the vestibulocochlear nerves can result in what?
Damage to the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerves can result in what?
loss of balance and equilibrium
The Glossopharyngeal nerves have what 3 functions?
Damage to the glossopharyngeal nerves can result in what?
- Impaired taste
- Difficulty swallowing
The Vagus nerves have what 3 functions?
The vagus nerves viscerate a lot of what?
The vagus nerves are a vital component of what?
If the vagus nerves are damaged, this can result in what?
- Hoarseness, loss of voice
- Difficulty swallowing
- Impaired GI motility
What is the function of the accessory nerves?
Movement of head and neck muscles
Damage to the accessory nerves can result in what?
Head turns towards injury and difficulty shrugging shoulder
The hypoglossal nerve is responsible for what?
Moving the tongue
Damage to the hypoglossal nerve can result in what?
- Difficulty in speech and swallowing
- Tongue movement
Damage to both hypoglossal nerves would result in what?
No protrusion (not being able to stick tongue out)
Damage of only one hypoglossal nerve would cause what?
tongue deviates to affected side
The branching of the spinal nerve that goes to the POSTERIOR trunk of the body is the:
The branching of the spinal nerve that goes to the trunk and limbs of the body is the:
The joining of the ventral rami is known as the what?
The intercostal nerves innervate what areas?
- abdominal wall
The cervical plexus services what area?
Head and neck
What nerve associated with the cervical plexus controls breathing and is associated with the diaphragm?
Which plexus is associated with the upper limb?
Damage to the brachial plexus could result in what?
Limb weakness or paralysis
If the radial nerve is damaged, it can result in what?
- Crutch paralysis
- Wrist drop
If the ulnar nerve is damaged, it can result in what?
The ulnar nerve is associated with what?
Median nerve damage can lead to what?
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
- Difficulty with pincer grasp
Which plexus is associated with the abdominal wall and the anterior and medial thigh?
What are the 2 important nerves associated with the lumbar plexus?
- Femoral nerve (anterior thigh)
- Obturator nerve (medial thigh)
Damage to the femoral or obturator nerves can result in what?
- impaired gait
- pain or numbness
Which plexus is associated with the buttock and lower limbs as well as the pelvis and perineum?
What is the most important nerve associated with the sacral plexus?
The sciatic nerve comes from the joining of what two nerves?
- common fibular
Damage to the sciatic nerve can result in what?
Areas of skin innervated by spinal nerves (sensory info) are known as what?
These are rapid, predictable responses to a stimulus:
Somatic reflexes activate what?
Autonomic reflexes activate what?
Visceral effectors: smooth or cardiac muscle, glands
The site of stimulus is known as the what?
What transmits afferent impulses to the CNS?
What conducts efferent impulses from integration center to effector organ?
A single synapse or multiple synapses in CNS is known as the what?
What relates to a muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses (contracts or secretes)?
List the 5 components of a reflex arc in order:
- Sensory Neuron
- Integration Center
- Motor Neuron
Reflex Arcs are associated with what type of processing?