AP Exam

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1

Motor Unit

contains hundreds of muscle fibers that contract @ the same time. They are also controlled by a single motor neuron.

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1. What does the SR do?

The SR is responsible for storing Ca2+ ions for use during muscle contractions. It is the main resource in deciding whether or not muscle contraction occurs or not.

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2. What muscle does Abduction?

Dorsal interossei

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3. What muscle does Adduction?

Rhomboid Major

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4. What muscle does Extension?

Teres Major

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5. What muscle does Flexion?

Psoas Major

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6. What muscle does Supination?

Supination Bicep Brachi

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7. Isotonic Contraction - concentric

tension remains the same and muscle shortens

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8. What is the origin?

One fixed point of attachment (Not moving) proximal to the insertion

---->Beginning of the muscle name

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9. Isotonic Contraction - eccentric

tension remains the same and the muscle lengthens

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10. Name 3 muscles part of mastication

1. Lateral pterygoid

2. Medial pterygoid

3. Temporalis

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11. What is insertion?

One moving point of attachment (end of muscle name)

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12. First step in muscle relaxation:

1. Ca2+ concentrations fall

2. Ca2+ detaches from troponin

3. Active sites re-covered by tropomyosin

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13. Describe Thin filaments:

Located in Sarcomere.

Contains -

filamentous actin

nebulin

troponin

tropomyosin

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14. What is cardiac muscle?

...

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15. What is smooth muscle?

...

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16. What is the convergent fibers?

A broad area converges on attachment site

Muscle fibers pull in different directions, depending on stimulation

example: pectoralis muscles

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17. What is Unipennate fibers?

Fibers on one side of the tendon

example: extensor digitorum

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18. What is Multipennate fibers?

Tendon branches within muscle

example: Deltoid

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19. What is circular fibers?

Open and close to guard entrances of body aka sphincters

example: orbicularis oris

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20. What muscles elevate the shoulder?

trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major and rhomboid minor

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21. What is the Trapezius?

Major muscle of the back and responsible for moving, rotating and stabilizing the scapula.

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22. What is the lattismuis Doris?

major muscle of the back and is responsible for extension, adduction, abduction, and internal rotation.

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23. What is the Levatir Scuplae?

A muscle found on the back and part of the neck. Responsible for elevating scapula and tilting glenoid cavity.

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24. Define what the skeletal cell is and where its located?

...

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25. What structures are part of the triad?

T-tubules and Sarcoplasmic reticulum

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26. Describe thick filaments:

Contain Myosin and titin

usually found at the a-band of the sarcomere

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27. What neurotransmitter is released during muscle synapse?

Acetylcholine

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28. Which muscle types have single nuclei?

Smooth and Cardiac Cells

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29. What forms from breaking down ATP?

ADP + Energy + diphosphate

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30. Name 3 of the muscles moving the pectoral girdle:

1. Pectoralis major

2. Pectoralis minor

3. Trapezius