IHP 1001 Histology Unit 1

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Cells, Muscles, Blood
updated 2 weeks ago by ryankutz
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medical, histology
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1

cells

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  1. the fundamental units of life, believed to have evolved from a common ancestral cell over 3 billion years ago.
  2. prokaryotic cells are small, primitive with circular DNA, no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; include bacteria and archaea.
  3. eukaryotic cells are large, sophisticated, with linear DNA stored in a nucleus, and membrane-bound organelles; and include animals, plants, fungi, protists.
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cellular components

  1. protoplasm is the living substance of the cell (subdivided into the cytoplasm and the nucleus)
  2. cytoplasm is the contents of the cell between the plasma membrane to the nuclear envelope
  3. karyoplasm is the substance forming the the content of the nucleus
  4. organelles are metabolically active cellular structures that execute specific functions
  5. inclusions are nonliving components of the cell that do not possess metabolic activities and are not bound by membranes
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central dogma

  1. the sequential flow of genetic information that occurs in all living cells
  2. transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from DNA
  3. translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from RNA
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plasma membrane

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  1. a bilayer containing phospholipids (amphipathic), cholesterol (controls fluidity), proteins (integral and peripheral) and some carbohydrates (externally)
  2. functions as a selectively permeable membrane of the cell; acts as a physical barrier to enclose the cell contents, regulates movement of material in and out of the cell, functions in cell signaling and communication.
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cilia

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  1. short, numerous membrane extensions supported by microtubles, which occur on exposed membrane surfaces of some cells; at its base is a basal body (derived from a centriole) that controls the axoneme
  2. functions to move substances over the cell surface (e.g. mucus dissolved materials)
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flagellum

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  1. long, singular membrane extension supported by microtubules; at its base is a basal body (derived from a centriole) that controls the axoneme; present in sperm cells
  2. functions to propel sperm
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microvilli

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  1. numerous thin membrane folds projecting from the free cell surface, supported by microfiliments
  2. functions to increase membrane surface area for greater absorption (e.g. in the digestive tract)
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nucleus

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  1. large structure enclosed within a double membrane; contains chromatin, nucleolus, and nucleoplasm
  2. functions to house DNA that serves as the genetic material for directing protein synthesis
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nuclear envelope

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  1. a double membrane boundary between the cytoplasm and nuclear contents; continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum
  2. separate the nucleus from the cytoplasm
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nuclear pores

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  1. openings through the nuclear envelope
  2. functions to allow passage of material between the cytoplasm and nucleaoplasm (e.g. RNA, proteins, ions, small water-soluble molecules)
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nucleolus

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  1. large prominent structure within the nucleus
  2. functions in synthesis of ribosomes
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cytoplasm

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rough endoplasmic reticulum

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  1. extensive interconnected membrane network that varies in shape (e.g. cisternae, tubles) with ribosomes attached on the cytoplasmic surface
  2. functions to modify, transport, and store proteins produced by attached ribosomes; these proteins are secreted, become components of the plasma membrane, or serve as enzymes of lysosomes
  3. within a neuron, it is called Nissl body
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smooth endoplasmic reticulum

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  1. extensive interconnected network membrane lacking ribosomes
  2. functions to synthesize, transport, and store lipids (e.g. steroids); metabolizes carbohydrates; detoxifies drugs, alcohol, and poisons; forms vesicles and peroxisomes
  3. within muscle, it stores calcium and is called the sacroplasmic reticulum
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golgi apparatus

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  1. series of several elongated, flatted saclike membranous structures
  2. functions to modify, package, and sort materials that arrive from the ER in transport vesicles (cis face); forms secretory vesicles for export (trans face)
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vesicles

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  1. spherical-shaped membrane-bound sacs; contain various types of material to be transported through the cell
  2. function to transport cellular material
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lysosomes

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  1. spherical-shaped membrane-bound organelles formed from the golgi apparatus; contain digestive enzymes
  2. function to digest microbes or materials (e.g. ingested by the cells, worn-out cellular components, or an entire cell)
  3. primary lysosomes are those not involved in a digestive event; secondary lysosomes are those that have fused with a phagosome; indigestible compounds following digestion are called residual bodies.
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Tay-Sachs disease

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  1. a type of lysosomal storage disorder, which are a group of diseases that stem from defects in one or more of the digestive enzymes present in lysosomes
  2. occurs mostly in children of Northeast European Jewish ancestry and in certain individuals of Cajun ancestry in Louisiana.
  3. deficiency of enzyme hexaminidase in the lysosomes inhibits catabolism of GM2 gangliosides; ganglioside accumulation in the lysosome in the CNS and PNS disrupts nerve conduction; children usually die by 3-5 years old.
  4. characterized by infantile onset (3-6 months), doll-like faces, cherry-red macular spot, early blindness, hyperacusis, macrocephaly, seizures, and hypotonia.
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peroxisomes

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  1. smaller, spherical-shaped membrane bound organelles formed from the ER or through fission; contain oxidative enzymes
  2. function to detoxify specific harmful substances either produced by the cell or taken into the cell; engage in beta oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl CoA
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mitochondria

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  1. a double membrane bound organelle with folds (cristae) in the inner membrane, which separates the intracellular space from the matrix
  2. functions in ATP synthesis during aerobic cellular respiration by digestion of fuel molecules (e.g. glucose) in the presence of oxygen
  3. has its own circular mitochondrial DNA (maternal origin) and is responsible for its own replication
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ribosomes

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  1. organelles composed of both protein and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that are organized into large and small subunits; may be bound to a membrane or free in cytosol
  2. function in protein synthesis; bound ribosomes produces proteins that are secretes, incorporated into the plasma membrane, and within lysosomes; free ribosomes produce proteins used within the cell
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cytoskeleton

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  1. organized network of protein filaments and hollow tubules, including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubes
  2. functions to maintain intracellular structure and organization of cells; participates in cell division; facilitates movement
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microfilaments

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  1. relatively thin actin protein monomers organized into two thin, intertwined protein filaments
  2. function to maintain cell shape; support microvilli; separate cells during cytokinesis; facilitate change in cell shape; participate in muscle contraction
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intermediate filaments

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  1. medium width filaments composed of various protein components
  2. provide structural support; stabilize junctions between cells
  3. the presence of specific types of intermediate filaments in tumor can reveal which cell originated the tumor
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microtubules

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  1. relatively thick hollow cyclinders composed of tubulin protein
  2. function to maintain cell shape and rigidity; organize and move organelles; support cilia and flagella; participate in vesicular transport; separate chromosomes durin cell division
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centrosome

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  1. amorphous region adjacent to the nucleus; contains a pair of centrioles
  2. organizes microtubles; participates in mitotic cell division
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proteasomes

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  1. large, barrel-shaped protein complexes located in the cytosol and nucleus
  2. degrade and digest damaged or unneeded proteins; ensure quality of exported proteins
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inclusions

  1. aggregates of specific types of molecules (e.g. melanin protein, glycogen, or lipids)
  2. serve as temporary storage for these molecules
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bulk transport

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  1. endocytosis is cellular uptake of macromolecules or fluid by plasma membrane engulfment or invagination, followed by the “pinching off” of a filled membranous vesicle in the cytoplasm.
  2. major types of endocytosis include phagocytosis (uptake of particulate material), pinocytosis (uptake of dissolved substances), and receptor-mediated endocytosis (uptake of specific molecules bound to integral membrane receptor proteins).
  3. exocytosis is a type of cellular secretion in which cytoplasmic membrane vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the extracellular space.
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glycogen storage disease

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chromatin

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barr body

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chromosome

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cell cycle

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genome

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immotile cilia syndrome

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neoplasm

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