Psychopathology (Final) Bonus Exam questions

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1

name one historic contexts in psychopathology

  • biological/ medical = derived from Kraeplin's medical model. Idea that abnormal behavior (deviant behavior) and mental disorders resulted from underlying medical/ genetic sources
2

psychosocial intervention for ADHD

  • reinforcement programs; used to teach certain behaviors by increasing their frequency using the principles of learning
3

two reasons why you might suggest no treatment as an alternative

  • some clients spontaneously improve- minors and otherwise healthy people who are in crisis
  • some do not respond well to treatment- narcissistic, masochistic, ODD, borderline
4

differentiate between:

  1. delirium
  2. dementia
  3. delusions
  1. delirium - temporary state of confusion and agitation. characterized by reduced consciousness and cognition. Underlying cause may be medical (tumor) or substance related
  2. dementia - cognitive deficits in memory and function associated with neurodegenerative properties. Not a temporary state, though there may be periods of lucidness
  3. delusions - temporary beliefs of paranoia, grandeur, exceptionality. Generally associated with psychosis. Can be treated
5

obstructive vs central sleep apnea

  1. obstructive sleep apnea- dyssomnia characterized by an obstruction in the airway that causes temporary pause in or inability to breathe. weight loss and CPAP machines can help
  2. central sleep apnea- dyssomnia characterized by pauses in breathing, not due to an obstruction.
6

equifinality

a disorder might have different etiologies/ sources. There are multiple "paths" to the same disordered outcome

7

contraindications

treatments that have been shown to not be effective treatment methods for a particular disorder

8

tardive dyskinesia

disorder of the CNS that results from long term psychotropic medication use and manifests in repetitive, uncontrollable movements

9

therapeutic index and equation

the ratio between the effective dose and the lethal dose of a drug. the smaller this window, the riskier the use (like lithium). The larger this ratio, the higher the TI and a little safer to use.

TI= Lethal dose/ effective dose

10

time response vs dose response

  1. time response: the time it takes for a drug to start working '
  2. dose response: the magnitude of the body's response to the dose
11

how would you address agitation in Alzheimer's patients?

  • removing dangerous object
  • using cues and labels
  • increasing lighting
  • simplifying environments and tasks
12

symptoms vs issues

  • symptoms: dysfunctions that the client reports. they can be behavioral, cognitive, affective, etc
  • issues: how the symptoms affect a client's life and how their life may exacerbate symptoms
13

what does parsimony mean in diagnosis?

the idea that a theory should provide the simplest explanation for a phenomenon. In diagnosis, this means giving one diagnosis that includes all the symptoms rather than assigning multiple diagnoses to that person

14

two exmaples of questions from the mini mental status exam

  1. can you recall the words i stated before (checking yes/ no for each word; usually 3 words)
  2. can you tell me what you had for lunch yesterday?
15

one factor that would make someone unfit to stand trial

  • inability to assist in their own defense
  • inability to understand court proceedings
16

summarize the procedure for involuntary (civil) admission

  • conditions:
  1. pose a threat to self/ others
  2. unable to care for self
  3. mental disorder and need treatment
  • procedure
  1. brought to dr to be examined in person. dr signs certificate that allows them to be held for 72 hours
  2. person then released, is voluntarily committed, or involuntarily held for longer
  3. another dr to sign another certificate that says they can be committed for another 2 weeks
  4. this certificate can be renewed at 1 month, 2 months, then every 3 (pending return to premorbid functioning)
17

diminished capacity and effect on sentencing

  1. diminished capacity:an individual who committed a crime but has a mental disorder. due to the mental disorder, it can be argued that their judgement was compromised and the intent to commit a crime wasn't there (and are not wholly responsible)
  2. this means that an individual will receive a misdemeanor/ lesser charges instead of felony charges
18

red flags and hidden clues to substance abuse

  • red flags: multiple DUIS, arrests, hospitalizations, suicide attempts
  • hidden clues: gait, rosacea, trouble speaking
19

two things an antagonists can do to impact a neuron

  • inhibits neurotransmitters release
  • inhibits neurotransmitter production
20

distribution vs biotransformation

  1. distribution: step 2 of pharmocokinetics; how the drug/ chemical is absorbed and wehre into the body (the blood, the blood-brain barrier)
  2. biotransformation: how the drug has an effect on the body (symptom relief/ other bodily reactions)
21

duty to warn

  • from tarasoff case
  • legal and ethical duty of a clinician to break confidentiality if their client has expressed a want and/or plan to harm another person
22

Name a component of the clinical institue withdrawal assessment

  • for alcohol withdrawal symptoms
  • headache
23

what happens during the crucial phase of addiction

  • second phase
  • increase in tolerance
  • denial
  • confrontation
24

categorical vs prototypical

  1. categorical: strict categories of disorder (nosology), each with their own set of distinct characteristics
  2. prototypical: combines a categorical and dimensional approach. Strict categories with defined features but there is room to apply additional information to provide more diagnostic insight (specifiers). DSM 5 is an example
25

civil vs criminal commitment

  1. civil: legal proceedings to decide if someone should be involuntarily committed
  2. criminal commitment: someone who is in a mental health facility because they are a) awaiting trial, b) have been found guilty by reason of insanity
26

two benefits of AA

  1. helpful for achieving abstinence (as opposed to controlled use, which is not as effective)
  2. support system for those recovering
27

dyssomnia and one treatment method

  1. type of sleep0 wake disorder characterized by troubles with falling and staying asleep (and/ or getting restful sleep)
  2. paradoxical intention- tell person who can't fall asleep to stay awake (the opposite). This removes performance anxiety and allows them to fall asleep gradually)
28

problems with controlled drinking approaches

  1. the experimental group had almost all relapse after 10 years (so the effects aren't long term)
  2. there was also no follow up with the control group so no comparison could be made for long term efficacy of the controlled drinking
29

what is cbt-e for eating disorders

  1. cognitive behavioral therapy- enhanced
  2. same principles as cbt but implements a struct eating schedule of small meals 5-6 x day, while teaching that binge-purge patterns are ineffective and dangerous. Also teaches emotion regulation/ recognition
30

primary method of working with ASD pioneered by Lovaas

  • applied behavioral analysis
  • intensive program to decrease unwanted behavior while increasing wanted behavior
  • includes setting goals and applying principles of behavior/ learning to achieve those goals
31

ABCs of observation

A- antecedents

B- behavior

C-consequences

32

tx for delirium

  • compensatory behaviors to reduce anxiety end confusion (modeling and emotion regulation/ recognition)
33

idiographic vs nomothetic

ways of conceptualizing tx and goals

  1. idiographic: individual's personal factors- cultural, ethnicity, race, religion, family, age, gender, etc. helpful in conceptualizing treatment and goals
  2. nomothetic: strictly categorical/ diagnosis-based treatment planning. less person-specific, relying on nosology and defined characteristics of the disorder to guide treatment, goals, and interventions