Ch23- Basic Respriatory Function

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1

Upper respiratory function

filter, heat and humidifies incoming air
cool and recovers humidity in outgoing air

2

Exhale

cool & recover humidity air

3

Inhale

filter, heat & humidify air

4

Upper respiratory components (4)

-nose
-nasal cavity
-paranasal sinuses
-pharynx

5

Respiratory functions (5)

-providing surface area for gas exchange
-move air to and from exchange surfaces
-prevent dehydration defends against pathogen invasion of respiratory surfaces
-produce sounds for communication
-facilitates detection of olfactory stimuli

6

Lower respiratory function

delivery air to/from and exchange across respiratory surfaces, vocalization

7

Lower respiratory components (5)

-larynx
-trachea
-bronchi
-bronchioles
-alveoli

8

Conducting portion

nose -- terminal bronchial is passage way for air

9

respiratory portion

respiratory bronchioles & alveoli is surface area fro gas exchange
~35x total body surface area

10

Cilated columnar ET

located in nasal cavity, upper pharynx, and superior portion of lower respiratory system

11

Stratisfied squamous

cell type in lower pharynx

12

Stratified cuboidal

cell type in smaller bronchioles

13

Simple squamous

cell type in alveoli

14

Cilia function

sweeps mucus trapped in particles moving it towards pharynx, removes particles ~5-10 micrometers diameter

15

Lamina propria

areolar tissue
supports epithelium
mucous glands- upper tract
smooth muscle- lower tract

16

Respiratory Mucosa

mucous membrane, lines conduction portions which is nose--terminal bronchioles for air passage

17

Pharynx function and regions (3)

common pathway for FOOD & AIR
-nasopharynx
-oropharynx
-laryngopharynx part of throat connected to esophagus

18

Larynx

surround and protects glottis
-epigottis flab that protects glottis
-voice box

19

Cricoid cartilage

cartilage in larynx region directly underneath thyroid cartilage

20

Trachea

mucosa like nasal cavity; c-shaped cartilage that exceeds down to primary bronchi

21

Carina

the fork at the lower end of the trachea where the two mainstem bronchi branch

22

Primary bronchi

c-shape cartilages, asymmetrical extend into lungs

23

Secondary bronchi

LOBAR BRONCHI;
arises from the primary bronchi-serve as an airway for each lobe in the lungs 3 in right and 2 in the left lung (smaller)

24

Tertiary Bronchi

SEGMENTAL BRONCHI
supplies air to bronchopulmonary region, reduced cartilage and increased smooth muscle

25

Bronchioles

smallest branches of the bronchi- lack cartilage which is easier for cells to infect

26

Respiratory bronchioles

ANS nervous system; thinnest branch; deliver air to the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs,contain very few cilia, include alveolar duct, aveolar sacs, and aveoli

27

Aveoli per lung

~150 million

28

Alveoli

gas exchange structure, type I and type II cells, macrophages, basal lamina, capillary network, and elastic fibers

29

Type I cells

cells located in alveoli, simple squamous ET

30

Type II cells

cells located in alveoli, secrete surfactant an oily coating

31

Surfactant

located on alveoli, type 2 cell, secretes an oil coating and reduces surface tension

32

Alveoli structures (4)

macrophages, basal lamina, capillary network, and elastic fibers

33

Epithelia cells

simple squamous alveolar cells in respiratory membrane

34

Endothelial cells

line capillaries in respiratory membrane

35

Fused basal lamina

located between alveolar and endothelial cells

36

Thickness of respiratory membrane

~ 0.5 um thick

37

Pleural cavities

each lung occupies a pleural cavity and separated by the mediastinum

38

Mediastinum

separates the pleural cavities surround each lung

39

Pleura

serous membrane lining the parietal and visceral cavities
pleural fluid is between the two to reduce friction and prevent
collapse of lungs

40

Pleural fluid

located between the parietal and visceral cavity, prevents collapse of lungs and reduces friction between cavities

41

Visceral cavity

layer that surrounds the organ

42

Parietal cavity

lined with peritoneum , outer membrane layer surrounding the body cavity

43

Cavities with rib cage

visceral and parietal cavity adhere to the rib cage to keep lungs upright

44

Intrapulmonary pressure

760 mm Hg

45

Intrapleural pressure

756 mm Hg

46

Collapsing force of lungs

4 mm Hg

47

Esophagus

the passage between the pharynx and the stomach

48

Epiglottis

lid to glottis

49

Thyroid cartilage

hyaline; largest laryngeal cartilage

50

Cricoid

hyaline; provides posterior support to thyroid

51

Hilus

access to pulmonary vessels, nerves, lymphatic

52

Carina

separates 2 bronchi

53

Bronchopulmonary region

supplied by tertiary bronchi

54

Tertiary Bronchi

aka segmental bronchi

55

Epiglottis

protection lid to glottis

56

Thyroid Cartilage

hyaline- largest laryngeal cartilage

57

Cricoid

hyaline- provides posterior support to thyroid

58

Carian

end of trachea separates into Right and Left bronchi

59

Alveolar ducts

airway to sacs

60

Alveolar sacs

multiple alveoli surrounded by capillaries and elastic fibers