CH 26- Urine Formation
by product of amino acid metabolism
by product of creatine phosphate metabolism
by product of nitrogenous base recycling
Urea, creatinine, Uric Acid, Dissolved Water
organic waste products (4)
unavoidable water loss but can achieve ____ solute concentration of plasma
water and solute movement, pressure driven, flow from blood to capsule
mechanism based solely on size, solute must fit through fenestrations and ____ slits
removal of water from filtrate into peritubular fluid
removal of solute from filtrate into peritublular
removal of water and solute goes where
selective process simple diffusion or carrier mediated
transport of substances into tubular fluid
movement facilitated by substrate binding
this proteins as usually unidirectional movement
distribution is different cross cell surface
Apical and Basal
2 surfaces use different carriers proteins
much like an enzyme this can saturate proteins
Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
blood pressure in glomerulus
GHP pressure amount
CsHP pressure amount
BCOP pressure amount
NHP= GHP - CsHP
net pressure formula
difference btw NHP and BCOP
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
this pressure oppose GHP, results from resistance from nephron
10% (per min)
% amount of fluid arriving in blood is filtered into the capsular space, how fast?
what substance is NOT reabsorbed in the glomerular
% of filtrate in the glomerular is ultimately reabsorbed
what controls the blood flow of the glomerulus?
Autoregulation, Hormonal, Autonomic
what controls the NFP for the blood flow of the glomerulus? (3)
adjusting afferent & efferent arteriole diameter and capillary dilation
Dilation of afferent arteriole
relaxation of supporting cell and capillary dilation; part of autoregulation for GFR control
Constriction of efferent arteriole
causes increase in blood flow/pressure in glomerulus; part of autoregulation GFR
afferent arterioles constrict then efferent arterials ____
type of regulation; JG cells release renin
in hormonal regulation; decrease tubular NaCl concentration sensed by ____
in hormonal regulation; paracrine stimulate ______
in hormonal regulation; angiotensin I is concerted to II in the ______?
BV and BP
in hormonal regulation; angiotensin II *in lung* elevates what? (2)
in hormonal regulation; angiotensin II constricts what?
in hormonal regulation; where does angiotensin II constrict efferent arterioles (GFR increase)
Angiotensin II constricting efferent arterioles
*in hormonal regulation* what causes GFR to increase?
in hormonal regulation a decrease in GFR causes a decrease flow in the_____
Increase in NaCl reabsorption
in hormonal regulation a decrease in the GFR which decrease flow of tubular fluid cause _______ . (increase)
in hormonal regulation; this enzyme cause angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
More time spent in loop
hormonal regulation; why is there an increase in NaCl reabsorption due to a decrease in flow of tubular fluid?
Decrease in GFR = Decrease in Tubular flow = Increase in NaCl reabsorption (> loop time)
hormonal regulation flow (decrease in __ and so on)
angiotensinogen - angiotensin I
in hormonal regulation, renin causes?
what causes the decrease in GFR (disturbed)
when homeostasis is disturbed and there is a decrease in GRF what is released?
after renin is release due to a disturbance in homeostasis what is activated
BP and BV elevate
after angiotensin is activated by renin due to disturbed homeostatsis what happens?
and elevation of BP and BV due to angiotensis activated from renin what happens?
what cells release renin
releases of renin causes _____ in glomerular bp
renin release causes this to decrease in tubular fluid at *macula densa*
where does the osmotic concentration of tubular fluid decrease from release of renin
constricts efferent arterioles
stimulates reabsorption of Na and water at PCT
where to angiotensin stimulate reabsorption of Na and water