Essentials of Abnormal Psychology: Psychopathology (Final) Paraphalic Dx, Sexual Dysfunction, Gender Dysphoria Flashcards

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List the paraphilic disorders

  1. voyeruistic
  2. exhibitionistic
  3. frotteuristic
  4. sexual masochism dx
  5. sexual sadism dx
  6. pedophilic dx
  7. tranvestic dx
  8. fetishistic dx

What are paraphilic disorders?

  • intense arousal to inappropriate stimuli

Categories of sexual dysfunction disorders

  1. Desire disorders —lack of sexual desire or interest in sex
  2. Arousal disorders —inability to become physically aroused or excited during sexual activity
  3. Orgasm disorders —delay or absence of orgasm (climax)
  4. Pain disorders — pain during intercourse

What are sexual dysfunctions

  • A heterogenous group of disorders that are typically characterized by clinically significant disturbance in a person’s ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure

List of sexual dysfunction disorders

  • Delayed ejaculation (problem of climax)
  • Erectile disorder (problems of arousal)
  • Female orgasmic disorder (problem of climax)
  • Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
  • Female sexual interest/ arousal disorder (problem of arousal/ desire)
  • Genito-pelvic pain/ penetration disorder (problem of pain)
  • Premature ejaculation (problem of arousal)
  • Substance/ medication-induced sexual dysfunction (problem of arousal)

Treatments for sexual dysfunctions

  • Bibliotherapy (erotica, educational material)
  • Solo exercises (kegels, relaxation, graduated dilators)
  • Couples exercises (sensate focus)

Paraphilic disorders: types and treatments

  • Antidepressants that influence serotonergic pathways (SSRIs)
  • Medications that reduce androgens (hormones that influence sexual desire/ activity)
  • Good lives model of rehab= ID risk factors in relapse, emphasize personal goals and strengths, use these factors to treat and motivate change
  • CBT
  • Behavioral= extinguishing arousal response triggered my inappropriate stimulus

Sensate Focus treatment process

  • for sexual dysfunctions
  • Stage 1
    • 2 one-hour sessions per week
    • Touching for interest= breasts and genitals are off limits; intercourse prohibited; review with therapist
  • Stage 2
    • Lift “restrictions” on body parts
    • ID specific parts of body that are arousing or unpleasant
  • Stage 3
    • specific to the sexual dysfunction= anorgasmia, vaginismus, premature ejaculation
  • problems w treatment
    • “cheating on assignments” = will touch when they aren’t supposed to in Stage 1
    • Disabilities =


  • anatomical indicators of being male or female; also termed natal sex. The sex one is assigned at birth


the sense that one is male or female. The gender with which one identifies


Gender dysphoria

  • the distressing experience of an inconsistency between one’s natal sex and one’s gender (a diagnosable thing in the DSM- a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/ expressed gender and assigned gender, ot at least 6 months’ duration)


  • individuals who take steps towards changing their gender or appearing as the opposite gender. Some refer to transsexuals as male to female transsexuals and female to male transsexuals/ More recent terms that are gaining acceptance are affirmed male or trans man and affirmed female or trans woman


  • used as a broad term to include individuals who live as a different gender from their natal sex. May or may not have has sex reassignment surgery

Gender variance

used even more broadly to include any level of different gender identification. May or may not meet criteria for gender dysphoria


Gender identity

one’s subjective sense of being male or female


Sexual orientation

to whom one is attracted


Gender nonconformity

  • presenting or identifying oneself in a manner that is different from the conventional gender roles of one’s culture

Gender dysphoria in children

  • Typically involves preference for opposite-sex dress, play behaviors, playmates, and urinary position
  • More boys than girls are typically diagnosed with gender dysphoria- may due to greater parental disapproval of gender nonconformity of boys (compared to girls)
  • Most children with gender dysphoria do not continue to have this disorder in adulthood= many indicate that they have come to accept their gender and that they also have bisexual or homosexual feelings of attraction as they mature

gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults

  • May include cross dressing (purpose: express oneself as the opposite gender to feel consistent with one’s sense of self)

Biological/genetic causes of gender dysphoria

  • Male-to-female transsexuals have different brain activation compared to heterosexual, non-gender-dysphoric men during mental rotation tasks
  • Postpartum brain dissection has revealed similarities between natal females and male-to-female transsexuals
  • Biological hypoth4esis: prenatal exposure to varying levels of sex hormones influences subsequent gender identity
  • Androgen exposure in the womb has been linked to comparative finger length on one’s hand
    • With index and ring fingers = among male-to-female transsexuals, the 2nd to 4th digit ratio was more similar to natal females’ than to non-trans males’ digit ratio
  • Individuals with a transsexual sibling are more likely to be trans compared to the general population

Psychosocial and environmental causes of gender dysphoria

  • Concept of gender is a social construct
  • In most societies there is a gender binary; in fewer societies there is a third category= in India; individual who wear women’s clothing but have male/ intersex/ ambiguous genitalia and do not try to pass as female
  • Social cognitive perspective= gender identity development involves learning roles through:
    • Observational learning
    • Experiencing others’ evaluative reactions to one’s behavior
    • Being rewarded and punished for gender-typical or gender- atypical behavior
  • Environmental forces exert pressure on children to conform to gender norms

Interventions for Gender dysphoria

  • Transitions to another gender might include:
    • Medications
    • Voice/ communication therapy
    • Hair transplants
    • Varying degrees of surgery to masculinize or feminize the face, neck chest, genitals, etc
      • Positive mental and physical health outcomes; dissatisfaction (if any) usually revolve around dissatisfaction with the surgical procedure (not that it was actually done)
    • Psychotherapy
      • Preparing for changes in relationships with others and broader society; with coming out
      • Deal with secondary problems of depression, anxiety, substance use, suicidal thoughts
      • Family therapy and support groups
    • CBT= help change their thoughts, feelings, behaviors
    • Male-to-eunuch trans= have been or want to be castrated in order to become a gender that is neither male nor female (dislike being a man but have difficulty finding tx)

Counter-indicated treatments for gender dysphoria

  • Specific gender identity goals= use coping strategies, psychoeducation, and support for the gender variant child, instead
  • Reparative therapy
    • Goals is to change one’s sexual orientation and gender conformity
    • Harmful to person’s individual and social wellbeing