Ch 24 - Digestive System Overview

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1

Process of Digestion

ingestion
propulsion
mechanical processing
digestion
secretion
absorption
excretion/defection

2

Mechanical processing

physical breakdown of foods
small intestine, stomach, mouth (digestion process)

3

Digestion

system contains enzymes to break down food
(digestion process)

4

Peritoneum

double layers of serous membrane of digestion

5

Mesenteries

double serous membrane *between* visceral and parietal peritoneum

6

Falciform Ligament

a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the diaphragm and the abdominal wall

7

Mesocolon (transverse/sigmoid)

mesentery associated with portion of large intestine

8

Ascending Colon

large intestine right side of body

9

Descending Colon

large intestine left side of body

10

Epithelium, Lamina Propria, Muscularis Mucosae

mucosa layer

11

Epithelium mucosal

type depends on location
enteroendocrine cells;
coordinate tract and accessory organs

12

Lamina propia (mucosa layer)

secretary cells of mucous gland
*small vessels and nerve endings*

13

Serosa

epithelium and CT

14

Submucosa

Dense Irregular CT
Contain large blood & lymphatic vessels
Submucosal plexus
Exocrine gland

15

Exocrine glands

gland that secretes buffer (pH) and enzyme from pancreas

16

Submucosal Plexus

plexus innervation of submucosa and mucosa

17

Mucularis Externa

smooth muscle
mechanical processing
peristalsis
coordinated by neurons of myenteric plexus

18

Peristalsis

movement of food through gut by contraction of visceral smooth muscle

19

Myenteric plexus

plexus coordinates muscularis externa layer

20

Pacesetter cells

controls rhythmicity peristalsis (food) movement

21

Enteric Nervous System

brain of gut
regulates digestive activity

22

Submucosal plexus

regulates glands and smooth muscle in submucosa and mucosa

23

Myenteric Nerve plexus

control mobility
operates independent of the CNS (short reflex) and influence by parasympathetic

24

Local mechanism

short reflex mechanism that are sensor receptors in wall of GI tract

25

stretching, osmolarity, pH, activate/inhibit hormone glands

local mechanisms function (5)

26

Propulsion, mastication, chemical digestion

function of mouth (3)

27

Amylase

enzyme that breaks down starch

28

Parotid, Sublingual, Submandibular

glands of mouth (3)

29

Parotid

gland of mouth- salivary amylase

30

Sublingual

gland of mouth - mucous secretion
-mucin and buffers

31

Submandibular

gland in mouth contains buffers/mucins/amylase

32

Periodontal Ligament

ligament helps hold in tooth

33

Roots and periodontal ligament

these 2 structure help hold teeth in place

34

Mucins

lubricates food

35

Esophagus

Conducts food from pharynx to stomach
Peristalsis
Submucosa contains esophageal glands

36

Swallowing

voluntary initiation - proceeds automatically ~9 secs

37

tongue retraction, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal contraction and peristalsis

phases of swallowing mechanism (3)

38

Sucking

mechanism is allowed by separation of nasal and oral cavities

39

Mechanical digestion

chewing - mouth
churning - stomach
segmentation - small intestine

40

Segment

mechanical digestion in small intestine

41

Pancreas

exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes, endocrine cells secrete hormones

42

Salivary glands

gland; secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down carbohydrates

43

Bile

important fluid secreted for lipid and digestive

44

Gallbladder

organ; storage and concentration of bile

45

small intestine

organ; enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates vitamins and ions

46

Retroperitoneal

organs sit behind peritoneum

47

Mesenteries

retroperitoneal sit in which membrane cavity?

48

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

4 layers of digestive tract

49

Lamina propria (mucosa)

layer that contains *small* vessels and nerve endings

50

Lamina propria (mucosa)

layer secretes cells of mucous glands

51

Epithelium (mucosa)

layer contains enteroendocrine cells and coordinate tract and accessory organs

52

Muscularis mucosae

layer with smooth muscle and elastic fibers

53

Muscularis mucosae

circular inner layer and longitudinal outer layer

54

Muscularis mucosae

layer that alter shape of lumen and move pleats and folds

55

Submucosa

layer with dense irregular CT

56

Submucosa

*layer* contains large blood and lymph vessels

57

Submucosa plexus

innervation of submucosa and mucosa

58

Plexus

a network of intersecting blood vessels, nerves or lymph vessels

59

Submucosa

layer has endocrine gland w/ buffer and enzyme secretion

60

Muscularis externa

layer with smooth muscle *circular and longitudinal*

61

Muscularis externa

layer that mechanical processing (segmentation) and movement through gut (peristalsis)

62

Segmentation

mechanical processing in stomach

63

Serosa

membrane encompassing to intraperitoneal layer

64

Peristalsis

motion coordinates contraction of visceral smooth muscle

65

Liver

organ; *secretion* of bile (important for lipid digestion)

66

Liver

organ; storage of nutrients

67

Large Intestine

organ; dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials in preparation for elimination

68

Salivary glands

gland; secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes that break down CHO

69

Small Intestine

organ; enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins, and ions

70

Visceral peritoneum

peritoneal membrane, covers organs of digestion

71

Parietal peritoneum

peritoneal membrane, lines body wall of digestion

72

Mesenteries

membrane encloses and suspends much of GI tract

73

Mesenteries

*membrane* that contains blood and lymph vessels in areolar tissue

74

Retroperitoneal

organs sit behind the peritoneum in this membrane

75

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

accessory organs (6)

76

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

digestive organs (6)

77

Ingestion

mechanism when material enter digestive tract via mouth

78

Mechanical process

process; crushing and shearing of material

79

Digestion

chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments

80

Secretion

mechanism that releases of water, acids, enzymes, buffers and salts by epithelium

81

Absorption

mechanism; movement of substrates, electrolytes, vitamins, and water across epithelium

82

Excretion

mechanism; removal of waste product from body fluids

83

Mesenteries

membrane include the greater and lesser omentum

84

Lesser Omentum

fat skin that stabilizes the position of stomach and provides access route fro blood vessels; part of mesentery membrane

85

Ascending, Descending, Rectum

these colon of large intestine fuse to dorsal wall

86

Enteroendocrine

cell from pancreas that secrete hormones which coordinate activities of digestive

87

Pancreas, duodenum, rectum, ascending, descending colon

retroperitoneal organs (5)

88

Circular

inner layer of the muscularis mucosae

89

Longitudinal

outer layer of the muscularis mucosae

90

Muscularis Mucosae

contraction in this layer alter shape of lumen and move pleats and folds

91

Submucosa

this *layer* contain exocrine glands
(buffer and enzyme secretion) in digestive tract

92

Parasympathetic stimulation

stimulation in muscularis externa that *increases* muscle tone and activity

93

Sympathetic stimulation

stimulation in muscularis externa that promotes muscular inhibition and relaxation

94

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, rectum

portion of digestive tract tightly bound by collagen fibers instead of submuosa (4)

95

Bolus

small oval mass of digestive content

96

Myenteric plexus

nerve network sandwich btw circular an longitudinal muscle layers in externa layer

97

Buffers and digestive enzymes

exocrine glands of pancreas secrete?

98

Hormones

endocrine glands of pancreas secrete?

99

Buccal

phase of swallowing voluntary until entered oropharynx

100

Pharyngeal

phase of swallowing that enables swallowing reflex, respiratory centers are inhibited and breathing stops

101

Esophageal

phase of swallowing that leads bolus to entrance of stomach

102

Incisors

teeth for clipping or cutting hard food

103

Cuspid (canines)

teeth for tearing or slashing

104

Bicuspids (premolars)

teeth for crush, mash and grind
-may have two roots

105

Molars

teeth for crushing hard food
-typically has 3 > roots

106

Pharynx

anatomical space serves as a common passageway for food, liquid, and air

107

Mastification

chewing

108

Submucosa

esophageal glands are located in what layer *of the esophagus only*

109

Lesser and Greater Omentum

fat structures part of the mesentery membrane (2)

110

Mouth, Stomach, Small intestine

where does mechanical process (physical breakdown) occur?

111

Ascending/Descending Colons, Pancreas, Duodenum, Rectum

name the 5 organs that sit in the Retroperitoneal cavity

112

Circulares Plicae

folds that increase SA for absorption

113

Short Reflex

Myenteric reflexes are long or short?

114

Mucins and Buffers

Mucous secretion from the sublingual gland and submandibular are (2)

115

Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx

2 regions of the pharynx