Ch 23- Quiet vs Forced Respiration

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1

Pulmonary Ventilation

movement due to pressure differences
air movement in and out of lungs
maintains alveolar ventilation

2

Gas Diffusion

btw alveoli and blood
btw blood and other tissue

3

Gas Transport

from alveolar capillary bed to capillary beds in other tissue

4

External Respiration

exchange of 02 & C02 btw interstitial fluid and external environment

5

Internal Respiration

consumption/production of 02 & C02
cellular respiration

6

Boyle's Law

P1 V1 = P2 V2
change in volume- change in pressure volume down-pressure up (vice versa)
Gases always fill their containers

7

Air flow

as volume goes up pressure goes down
F= P1 - P2 / R

8

Pulmonary Ventilation Mechanisms

1. Increase in thoracic volume; decrease in thoracic pressure
2. Rib and sternum elevate; diaphragm contracts

9

Atmospheric Pressure *P*atm

Pressure exerted by air at sea level
760mmHG = 1 atmosphere

10

Intrapulmonary Pressure *P*pul

Pressure in alveoli
-aka Intra-alveolar

11

*I*ntrapleural *P*ressure *P*ip

Pressure in pleural cavity
Negative to *P*atm & *P*pul

12

Pulmonary Volume Increase

P outside > P inside; pressures inside falls air flows out

13

Pulmonary Volume Decrease

P outside < P inside; pressures inside rises air flows in

14

Single Inhalation

Pip (intrapleural pressure) falls to -6mmHg
P pul (intrapulmonary pressure) falls to
-1mmHg

15

Single Exhalation

Pip (intrapleural pressure) rises
P pul (intrapulmonary pressure) rises

16

Quiet Expiration

passive process
relaxation of muscle
*decrease in volume - increase in pressure*
P pul > P atm

17

Quiet Inhalation

contraction of diaphragm
contraction of external intercostals
*decrease P pul- increase in volume *
P pup < P atm

18

Alveolar Ventilation Formula

Va = f (Vt - Vd)

19

Dead Space *Vd

*volume of air in conducting airways, don't exchange gasses
~1mL per pound of body weight

20

Dalton's Law

total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of each gas
Pt = p1 + p2 + p3....
Pt = P n2 + P o2 + P co2 + P h2o

21

Partial Pressure

= % Total gas X Total pressure
pressure of each gas in a mixture

22

Henrys Law

*gas to liquid*
gases dissolve in liquid to proportional to its partial pressure
-movement determined by partial
pressure in liquid vs air

23

Gas Solubility

Henry Law; actual amount gas dissolved
C02 > 02 > N2

24

Internal Respiration

direct gas exchange at tissue level via
-cellular respiration
-driven by cell metabolic requirement and waste

25

Ventilation Perfusion Coupling

Low: redirection of blood the better ventilation areas;
-P02 direct blood vessel diameter
High C02 in blood: bronchiole dilation- rapid C02 elimination
-PC02 direct bronchiole diameter
- Rapid Co

26

Low Ventilation

redirect blood to better ventilation area
P02 control blood vessel diameter
PC02 control bronchiole diameter

27

Systematic Circulation

body vessel circuit

28

Inspiratory Capacity

total inspired after normal exhalation
VT + IRV

29

Functional Residual Capacity

air remaining in lungs after normal exhalation
RV + ERV

30

Vital Capacity

total amount that can be inhaled and exhaled forcibly
VT + IRV + ERV

31

Total Lung Capacity

total amount of air in lungs
VT + IRV + ERV + RV

32

Minute Volume (Flow) Formula

Ve = f Vt
Ve is volume of air moved per min
f is breaths per min
Vt tidal volume

33

Cellular Respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food

34

Ventilation

inhale and exhale of air

35

Decrease volume

molecules have more collision therefore causing more pressure

36

Increase volume

molecules have more 'obstacle' therefore pressure decreases

37

Inhalation

elevation of rib cage and contraction of diaphragm pulls air into lungs
-volume increases

38

Exhalation

diaphragm relaxes
-volume of cavity decreases

39

Inhalation Process

1. Diaphragm contract; rib cage rises
2. Thoracic cavity expands; volume increases
3. P pul falls to - 1 mmHG
4. Air fills lungs until P pul pressure is 0

40

Exhalation Process

1. Diaphragm relax; rib cage lowers
2. Thoracic cavity decreases; volume decrease
3. P pul rises to +1 mmHG
4. Air leaves until P pul pressure is 0

41

Respiratory rate

number of breaths per min; f

42

Inspiratory Residual Volume Female

1900 mL

43

Inspriatory Residual Volume Males

3300 mL

44

Tidal Volume Male/ Female

500 mL

45

Expiratory Residual Volume Female

700 mL

46

Expiratory Residual Volume Male

1,000 mL

47

Residual Volume Male

1,200 mL

48

Residual Volume Female

1,100 mL

49

Total Lung Capacity Male

6,000 mL

50

Total Lung Capacity Female

4,200 mL

51

Vital Capacity Female

3,100 mL
IRV + ERV + TV

52

Vital Capacity Male

4,800 mL
IRV + ERV + TV

53

Inspiratory Capacity Female

2, 400 mL
IRV + TV

54

Inspiratory Capacity Male

3,800 mL
IRV + TV

55

Functional Residual Volume Male

2, 200 mL
ERV + RV

56

Functional Residual Volume Female

1, 800 mL
ERV + RV

57

Alveolar Ventilation

amount of 02 reaching alveoli each min

58

How can alveolar ventilation be increased?

Vt - tidal volume
F- respiratory rate

59

Efficiency of Gas Exchange (5)

1. Substantial Partial Pressure differences
-greater the difference faster the diffusion
2. Distance to diffuse
-smaller distance faster diffusion
3. Lipid soluble gas 02 and C02
-goes straight through cell membrane
4. Large total surface area
-larger amount of area for diffusion
5. Blood and air flow coordinate
- higher P02 during increased blood flow
- decrease if airway interrupted or pulmonary obstruction

60

Greater blood flow

more 02 present in blood- same in lungs