Research Methods Test 1

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1

Inductive Reasoning

Broad generalizations from specific observations (e.g. all swans are white)

2

Deductivism

Predict observations should the theory be correct (start with hypothesis then collect data)

3

Who thought of falsificationism?

Popper

4

Name the 6 components of the cyclical process

General principle, deduction, prediction, specific instances, observations and induction

5

What type of statistics are useful for testing hypotheses?

Inferential

6

What is baynesian stats?

Utilizes prior probabilities

7

Name the essential concepts of ethics

stress and psychological harm

deception

informed consent

debriefing

privacy and confidentiality

care of animals

costs and benefits

8

When carrying out a study that may cause harm, one must _____ from the participants

forewarn to allow withdrawal

9

What are some negatives of using deception (even if told afterwards)

Unintended lasting effect

May distrust research and psychologists

10

If data is anon, do people have to sign consent forms?

No, participation is consent

11

Debriefing must be

Thorough and complete

Give a chance to ask questions/give feedback

12

Special populations for consent in NZ include, and who speaks for them

Younger than 16

Elderly

Cognitive deficits/mental disorder

Prisoners

Ethics committees

13

What organisation is responsible for NZ ethical principles?

NZ psychological society

14

What can expose the truth on fraud?

Replications of the study

15

Operationalisation

Can't measure constructs directly so have to measure them indirectly through variables (e.g. well being)

16

Reliability

a measurement tool that consistently generates a similar empirical estimate

17

Test retest

Correlation over time for the same individuals

Low reliability: psychometrically poor scale or phenomenon inherently unstable

18

Internal reliability is measured with and what does it measure?

Cronbach's alpha

The average level of inter correlation among all of the items

19

What is considered a unacceptable, acceptable and excellent cronbach alpha?

Below .5

.70-.80

.90-1

20

Content validity

Do items relate to the overall construct

21

Criterion validity

to what extent does the scale predict expected outcomes e.g. does grit scale predict success in a job/school?

22

Construct validity

To what extent does the scale measure the intended hypothetical construct e.g a test for depression should only test that, not anxiety and stress too

23

Convergent validity

the extent to which the scale correlates with scales that assess something similar

24

Discriminant validity

scale does not correlate with scales that are expected to be unrelated e.g IQ and grit are said to be unrelated

Looking for an non significant correlation (not negative)

25

What is the highest order, most abstract type of validity?

Construct. repeated demonstrations that the scale represents the intended construct over numerous and various contexts

26

Nominal variables

Numerical values that indicate membership of a group e.g. gender

27

Ordinal variables

Based on rankings

Only feasible with relatively small groups

28

Interval continuous variables

Lots of values obtained between a minimum and maximum e.g. multiple likert scales

Most common (most stats rely on assumption of normal dist)

29

Ratio variable

Similar to ordinal and interval but has a true zero point

30

Pros and cons of self reporting?

You know yourself the best

Easy and efficient

Cons- bias/censorship

Format of questions

Awareness/memory of events may be off

31

Name the 4 types of response scales and what type of data they produce

Binary Yes/No - Categorical

Fill in the blanks - Categorical (varied)

Multiple choice - Categorical

Likert - Interval

32

How many options do most Likert Scales have?

5-7 (odd number so you can have a neutral response)

33

When wording questionnaires, what should you avoid

Complexity

Ambiguity

Double barrel questions

Double negatives

Technical terms

Emotive language (loaded questions)

Leading questions

Sensitive topics

34

What are some pros of negatively worded questions in questionaires?

Can give balance and stop people from just selecting the same answer down the column

35

What are some pros and cons of digitally administered questionnaires?

Can do anywhere

Can edit easily

Can branch off - e.g. iwi

Can compile data e.g. excel

Problems- can't step back easily

Fonts can be hard to read

Computer can die

36

What is stratified sampling?

Divide population along dimensions to be sure to sample proportionately across these dimensions

37

What is cluster sampling?

Obtain data from preexisting groups/clusters

38

What are the non-probability types of sampling?

Convenience - readily available

Quota - Obtain appropriate percentages of different groups from readily available sources

Purposive - Select those who fit purpose

Snowball - enlisting peoples friends/family - good for rare groups e.g. surfers

39

Most commonly sampled population in psychology?

W.E.I.R.D

Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic

40

3 biases of sampling

unrepresentative (sampling frame doesn't represent pop.)

Self selection bias

Ethics

41

What is ESM?

Event Sampling Method

Daily diary method e.g. app for mood over time

42

Pros and cons of ESM?

Catches phenomena close to the time

Multiple assessments increases validity

Can identify contexts

Cons- individuals may not want their day interrupted

Lots of missing data

Hard to analyse