How would giving a patient intravaneous albumin affect filtration?
- Due to higher oncotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower
- Too much protein in the diet would abolish all filtration
- High blood pressure from increased plasma proteins would increase filtration to twice its normal rate
- Filtration would be unchanged, but the kidneys would suffer damage
What would be the effect on urine output if sodium channels in the tubule cells were inhibited? Remember that most of the volume of urine is water.
- The volume would increase
- The volume would decrease
- The volume would not change
What might cause blood in the urine?
- Deficits in filtration
- Damage to the kidneys tubules
- Damage to the bladder
- All of the above
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ___.
- Inhibits the release of ADH
- Increases the release of ADH
Where is filtrate produced in the nephron?
- Juxtaglomerular complex
- Vasa recta
- Peritubular capillaries
Which of the following is the most likely to cause pyelonephritis?
- Increased blood flow to the kidneys
- Decreased blood flow to the kidneys
- Renal failure
- Infection of the urinary bladder
The macula densa cells respond to ___.
- Changes in pressure in the tubule
- Changes in solute content of the filtrate
Which layer does the embryo burrow itself and implant into?
A woman wjo wants to ensure conception might buy an "ovulation predictor" kit. Which of the following hormones would be the best indicator of imminent ovulation?
The ___ of the uterus receives the embryo and provides nourishment until the placenta is formed.
Which of the following hormones do males secrete?
- All of the above
What might happen in a nonpregnant woman who began taking high levels of progesterone and estrogen supplements followed by high doses of prolactin supplements?
- The woman would spontaneously become pregnant.
- There would be no detectable change in the woman's body
- The woman's mammary glands would begin lactating
- The woman's vagina and uterus would atrophy
What is the major difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
- Spermatogenesis begins while the male fetus is in the uterus
- Oogenesis results in the formation of one viable oocyte
- Oogenesis is the result of several mitotic divisions
- Oogenesis is complete before ovulation occurs
LH stimulates the production of __ by the follicular thecal cells
- an oocyte
As many as ___ sperm can be released with each ejaculation.
- 750 million
- 750 trillion
What is the earliest stage that you can determine pregnancy?
- Formation of the blastocyst
- Formation of the morula
What is the major stimulus triggering parturition?
- Increased estrogen secretion from the uterus
- Increased oxytocin secretion from the mother's posterior pituitary gland
- Increased fecal cortisol secretion
- All of the above
When a woman's "water breaks" just before delivery, it is the ___ that ruptures.
- Yolk sac
Breast-feeding provides several advantages to newborns. For example, ____.
- Breast milk, especially colostrum, is rich in maternal antibodies
- The fat in breast milk is fully absorbed by the infant
- Breast milk contains antimicrobial molecules
- All of the above are benefits of breast-feeding
The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is ______.
- metabolic alkalosis
- Respiratory acidosis
- Respiratory alkalosis
- Metabolic acidosis
Which organs are the ultimate acid-base regulatory organs?
- GI tract organs
- Cardiovascular organs
In the collecting ducts, bicarbonate ions are generated by ______ cells, while ______ cells secrete bicarbonate ions.
- PCTL DCT
- Type B; Type A
- collecting duct; PCT
- Type A; Type B
How might the pH of the intracellular fluid change when cells increase their rate of metabolism?
- The pH would decrease
- The pH would increase
- The pH would remain unchanged
- The pH would change proportionately to the amount of bicarbonate produced
If the blood pH decreases, what breathing change would you expect?
- The respiration rate would increase
- The respiration rate would decrease
- The respiration rate would remain unchanged
- The respiration rate would be erratic
The primary buffer of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is the _______.
- Bicarbonate buffer system
- Sodium-potassium buffer system
- Protein buffer system
A patient's anxiety caused her to develop respiratory alkalosis. What breathing technique did the nurse recommend, and why?
- The nurse instructed the patient to breathe slower and deeper and to breathe into a paper bag. This will increase the patient's blood level of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, and by breathing in the expired air which has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide. As a result, blood pH will decrease.
- The nurse instructed the patient to breathe more shallowly. This will decrease the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by eliminating more carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH.
- The nurse instructed the patient to breathe faster and deeper. This will increase the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH.
After traveling from LA to Denver, Claire finds she is not feeling well and checks into a clinic for help. What is the diagnosis, and what has caused this problem?
- Respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation. Claire is experiencing the effect of the high altitude, breathing slower and shallower to raise the oxygen levels in her blood
- Respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation. Claire is experiencing the effect of the high altitude, breathing faster and deeper to raise her oxygen levels in her blood.
A patient is admitted to the hospital in complete collapse. His blood pH is 6.8, and his HCO3- is 20mEq/L. A medical history reveals that this patient is a chronic alcoholic. What diagnosis would you give, and what prognosis?
- The pH and bicarbonate levels and the history of alcoholism indicate respiratory acidosis. The patient will go into a coma and death soon follows.
- The pH and bicarbonate levels and the history of alcoholism indicate metabolic alkalosis. The patient will require dialysis to remove the bicarbonate ions.
- The pH and bicarbonate levels and the history of alcoholism indicate respiratory acidosis. The patient will require dialysis to remove the bicarbonate ions
- The pH and bicarbonate levels and the history of alcoholism indicate metabolic acidosis. The patient will go into a coma and death soon follows.