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1

Arteries

  • Different between arteries and veins types

Carry blood away from heart; oxygenated except for pulmonary circulation

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Capillaries

  • Contact tissue cells
  • Directly serve cellular needs
  • Endothelium with sparse basal lamina
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Lumen

  • Central blood
  • Containing space
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Veins

Carry blood toward heart

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Three wall layers in arteries and veins

  • Tunica intima
  • Tunica media
  • Tunica externa
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Tunica intima

  • Simple squamous epithelium
  • Secrete chemicals that dilate or constrict (Acts locally)
  • Lines the blood vessel and is exposed to blood
    • Acts as a selectively permeable barrier
    • Normally repels blood cells
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Tunica media

  • Middle layer
  • Consists of smooth muscle, collagen, and elastic tissue
  • Vasomotion – Changes in diameter of the blood vessel brought about by smooth muscle
  • Strengthens vessel and prevents blood pressure from rupturing them
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Tunica externa/adventitia

  • Outermost layer
  • loose connective tissue
  • Areolar tissue
  • Anchors the vessel and provides passage for small nerves, lymphatic vessels
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3 # Artery Types

  • 1- Elastic
  • 2- Muscular
  • 3- Arterioles
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Conducting (elastic or large) arteries

  • Artery Types 1: Elastic

Have a layers of elastic tissue

  • Expand during systole
  • Recoil during diastole; which lessens fluctuations in blood pressure
  • aorta, common carotid, subclavian, renal, pulmonary trunk, and common iliac arteries
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Distributing (muscular or medium) arteries

  • Artery types 2: muscular
  • Distributes blood to specific organs
    brachial, femoral, radial, tibial, gonadal and splenic arteries
  • Smooth muscle layers constitute three-fourths of wall thickness
  • Two elastic layers
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Resistance (small) arteries

Artery Types 3: arterioles

  • Most abundant & greatest impact on overall blood pressure
  • Arterioles – smallest arteries
    • control amount of blood to various organs
  • Thicker tunica media (for diameter)
  • Very little tunica externa
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Capillaries

  • Mass transfer
  • = force of fluid
  • = concentration of fluid
  • Site where nutrients, wastes, and hormones pass between the blood and tissue fluid through the walls of the vessels (exchange vessels)
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Venules

  • Smallest veins
  • Even more porous than capillaries so also exchange fluid with surrounding tissues
  • Most leukocytes emigrate from the bloodstream through venule walls
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Medium Veins

  • Thin tunica media and thick tunica externa
  • Tunica interna forms venous valves
  • Skeletal muscle pump propels venous blood back toward the heart
  • Examples include saphenous, fibular, cephalic, basilic, gastric, splenic
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Large Veins

  • Some smooth muscle in all three tunics
  • Thin tunica media with moderate amount of smooth muscle
  • Tunica externa is thickest layer
  • Venae cavae, pulmonary veins, internal jugular veins, and renal veins
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  • Mechanism of venous return
  • Factors Aiding Venous Return

Muscular pump: contraction of skeletal muscles "milks" blood toward heart; valves prevent backflow
Respiratory pump: pressure changes during breathing move blood toward heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand
Venoconstriction: under sympathetic control pushes blood toward heart.

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Factors Aiding Venous Return

  • Muscular pump
  • Respiratory pump
  • Venoconstriction
  • ***Stroke volume controlled by venous return (EDV)!!!
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Blood flow

  • Volume of blood flowing through vessel, organ, or entire circulation in given period
  • Relatively constant when at rest
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Perfusion

The flow per given volume or mass of tissue in a given time (mL/min./g)

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Blood pressure (BP)

Force per unit area exerted on wall of blood vessel by blood

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Systolic pressure

Pressure exerted in aorta during ventricular contraction

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Diastolic pressure

lowest level of aortic pressure during ventricular relaxation

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Pulse pressure

  • Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
  • Represents the force generated by the heart each time it contracts, also the status of the vessels at any given time
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Arterial Blood Pressure: MAP

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Mean arterial pressure

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Hypertension

High blood pressure

  • Chronic resting BP > 140/90
  • Consequences
  • Can weaken arteries, cause aneurysms, promote atherosclerosis
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Hypotension

Chronic low resting BP

  • Caused by blood loss, dehydration, anemia
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Vasomotion

  • Blood vessels change size, which affects how the heart contracts as well as how fast the blood flows in the body
  • Quick and powerful way of altering blood pressure and flow
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Vasodilate

Vessels grow in size,

increasing flow and reducing pressure

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Vasoconstrict

Vessels shrink in size, reducing flow and increasing pressure

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Three factores that affect blood flow

  • Vasomotion
    • Blood viscosity (stickiness)
  • Vessel length
    • Total blood vessel length
  • Blood viscosity
    • Blood vessel diameter – vasomotion most important!
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Blood viscosity

The "stickiness" of blood due to formed elements and plasma proteins

  • Increased viscosity = increased resistance
    • more pressure required to push
  • Decreased viscosity = decreased resistance
    • less pressure required to push
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Blood vessel length

  • Longer vessel = greater resistance encountered
  • Vessel length does not change in adults
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Baroreflex

Change in pressure of major vessel that need adjusted

  • an automatic, negative feedback response to changes in blood pressure detected in vessels
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Chemoreflex

Change in chemical composition of blood that than requires BP adjust

  • an automatic response to changes in blood chemistry (especially pH; concentrations of O2 and CO2)
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Medullary ischemic reflex

Change in O2 to brain, adjust BP to fix

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Hydrostatic

Pressure + force of incoming blood which causes filtrations of water + dissolve particles from plasma into tissue

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Osmotic pressure

Concentration variable focused on water movement

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The effector(s)s for the baroreflex feedback loop are----

  • A. vessels
  • B. heart and lungs
  • C. lungs, heart and vessels
  • D. vessels, kidney and heart
  • E. heart and vessels

Heart and vessels

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The receptor and integrator for the medullary ischemic reflex is--------

  • A. kidney
  • B. medulla oblongata
  • C. carotid bodies
  • D. baroreceptors

Medulla oblongata

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The receptor for the chemoreflex is sensitive to ------- while the effector is the -------

A. chemicals, vessels and lungs

B. oxygen levels, vessels and lungs

C. pressure changes, vessels and lungs

D. pressure changes, heart and vessels

Chemicals, vessels and lungs

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Anti-diuretic hormone acts on --------- to retain water, which in turn------ blood volume & pressure.

  • A. kidney, increase
  • B. kidney, decrease
  • C. liver, increase
  • D. liver, decrease
  • E. vessels, increase

Kidney, increase

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Aldosterone acts on the kidney to retain -------, which in turn ------ blood volume & pressure.

  • A. water, increase
  • B. water, decrease
  • C. salt, increase
  • D. salt, decrease
  • E. urea, increases

Salt, increase

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This hormone initiates the signaling process when blood pressure is reduce to the kidney

  • A. angiotensin ll
  • B. renin
  • C. aldosterone
  • D. anti- diuretic hormone

Renin

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Anti- Diuretic Hormone

  • match the hormone to the organ/ gland that releases it.

Pituitary gland

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Aldosterone

adrenal gland

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Angiotensin II

liver / lungs

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Atrial Naturitic Peptide

atria of heart

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Renin

Kidney

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Elastin throughout smooth muscle layer, assisting with recoil to maintain BP is----

large elastic artery

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Jugular, lilac, Brachiocephalic, Vena Cava is -----

large vein

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Contribute the most to systemic blood pressure; most abundant vessel carrying oxygenated blood is ----

resistance arteriole

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Femoral, brachial, radial, tibia, carry oxygenated blood and walls contain two layers of elastin is------

medium muscular artery

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Valves are present in this vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from organs and muscle groups is--------

medium vein

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Most abundant vessel carrying deoxygenated; highly permeable-----

venule

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Most of the blood in the human body is contained in the -------

  • A. pulmonary circuit
  • B. heart
  • C. arteries
  • D. veins

veines

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In an artery, there is significantly more----- embedded within or around the smooth muscle layer.

  • A. collagen
  • B. elastin
  • C. areolar
  • D. basal lamine

elastin

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In a vein, this layer of tissue in the wall is the thickest.

  • A. tunica intima
  • B. tunica externa
  • C. tunica media
  • D. tunica elastic

tunica externa

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The tunica media consists of which tissue type?

  • A. areolar tissue
  • B. smooth muscle
  • C. endothelium / simple squamous
  • D. elastic cartilage

Smooth muscle

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The tunica externa consists of which tissue type

  • A. areolar tissu
  • B. smooth muscl
  • C. endothelium / simple squamou
  • D. elastic cartilage

areolar tissue

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The tunica interna consists of what tissue type

  • A. areolar tissue
  • B. smooth muscle
  • C. simple squamous / endothelium
  • D. basement membrane

simple squamous / endothelium

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Cascade reaction in these proteins result in a membrane attack complex formed in the diseased cell

Complement

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Aggressive phagocyte that released a respiratory burst ( hydrogen peroxide and bleach) to destroy pathogens?

Neutrophil

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Release proteins prevent pathogen entry into neighboring cells ?

Interferon

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Phagocyte that acts as an antigen presenting cell, arrives late during inflamation

Macrophage

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Specialized cell for destroying cancerous or virally infected cells circulating in the lymph

Natural killer cell

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Fever is the an adaptive defense mechanism, in moderation ,dose more good than harm...…..

  • Promotes interferon activity and complement
  • elevates rate and accelerates tissue repair
  • inhibits reproduction of bacteria and viruses
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Fever receptors

  • Neutrophils
  • Macrophage
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Fever integrator

  • Neutrophils
  • Pyrogen
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Fever effector

Hypothalamus

  • raising body temperature by secretase more pyrogen
    • more pyrogen secretion cause increase of temperatures
    • less pyrogen secretion cause decrease of temperatures
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What are the two phases of acute - inflammation

1- Vascular phase

2- Cellular phase

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Change during acute-inflammation on cellular phase ( Neutrophils)

  • Increases in number at the infected site.
  • They migrate due to cytokine release (chemotaxis)
  • Increase degranulation and phagocytosis
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Change during acute- inflammation on cellular phase ( Macrophages)

  • Increase in number at infected site
  • They will perform phagocytosis to remove debris and infected material
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Change during acute-inflammation on vascular phase ( Capillary beds)

  • Increase permeability + more fluid leaves capillary and enters tissue
  • Edema occurs to ensure more nutrients are delivered to infected site.
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Change during acute-inflammation on vascular phase ( Blood flow)

  • Vasodilation occurs increase blood flow to site:
  • Reduced pressure that accompanies dilation makes it easier for WBCs to enter tissue.
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3 functions of lymphatic system

  • Fluid recovery
  • Immunity
  • Lipid absorption
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Fluid recovery

Fluid continually filters from the blood capillaries into the tissue spaces

  • blood capillaries reabsorb 85%
  • 15% (2 – 4 L/day) of the water and about half of the plasma proteins enters lymphatic system and then returned to the blood
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Immunity

Excess filtered fluid picks up foreign cells and chemicals from the tissues

  • passes through lymph nodes where immune cells stand guard against foreign matter
  • activate a protective immune response
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lipid absorption

lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries

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What is the immunity ?

Resistance to disease

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What is the Pathogens ?

Disease causing agents (bacteria, viruses)

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What is the Antigens ?

Foreign substances

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  • Two line of defense
  • Two intrinsic of immune systems
  • Innate (nonspecific) defense system
  • Adaptive (specific) defense system
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Innate defense system has two lines of defense

  • First line of defense
    • external body membranes (skin and mucosae)
  • Second line of defense
    • antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells
      Inhibit spread of invaders
      Inflammation most important mechanism
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First line of defense (Innate defenses)

  • Skin
    • makes it mechanically difficult for microorganisms to enter the body
  • Mucous membranes
    • mucus physically traps microbes
  • Sub epithelial areolar tissue
    • viscous barrier of hyaluronic acid
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Second line of defense (Adaptive defense)

  • Cells and Chemical Players
  • Phagocytes
  • Natural killer (NK) cells
    • Antimicrobial proteins (interferons and complement proteins)
      Fever
  • Inflammatory response
    • (macrophages, mast cells, WBCs, and inflammatory chemicals)
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Innate defenses (First line of defense)

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Adaptive defense (Second line of defense)

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WBCs types

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Neutrophils

  • Most abundant but die fighting
  • Become phagocytic on exposure to infectious material
    • A type of immune cell that is one of the first cell types to travel to the site of an infection.
    • Neutrophils help fight infection by ingesting microorganisms
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Macrophages

Develop from monocytes – chief phagocytic cells – robust cells

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Neutrophils main functions

  • Increased numbers during infections, phagocytose and release hydrolytic enzymes
  • – BACTERIAL SLAYERS & primary components of PUS
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Eosinophils main funnctions

  • Increased numbers in parasitic infections and allergies
  • – REDUCE allergic reactions & FIGHT WORMS
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Basophils main functions

  • Secrete HISTAMINE (vasodilator)
    • speeds flow of blood to an injured area
  • Secrete HEPARIN (anticoagulant)
    • promotes the mobility of other WBCs in the area
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Lymphocytes main functions

Increased numbers in diverse infections and immune responses

  • T cells and B cells (specific immunity)
  • destroy cells (cancer, foreign, and virally infected
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Monocytes main functions

Increased numbers in viral infections and inflammation

  • leave bloodstream and transform into macrophages
  • phagocytize pathogens and debris
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Natural Killer (NK) Cells

  • Nonphagocytic large granular lymphocytes
  • Attack cells that lack "self" cell surface receptors
    • Induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells
  • Secrete potent chemicals that enhance inflammatory response
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Inflammation

local defensive response to tissue injury of any kind, including trauma and infection

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General purposes of inflammation

  • Limit spread of pathogens, then destroys them
  • Remove debris from damaged tissue
  • Initiate tissue repair
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Fever

  • Abnormally high body temperature
  • Systemic response to invading microorganisms
  • Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to foreign substances secrete pyrogens
  • Pyrogens act on body's thermostat in hypothalamus, raising body temperature
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Effector on Fever

Hypothalamus, raising body temperature

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Fever

Receptor is Neutrophils & Macrophages fighting the infection (measure) viral or microbial lead , if too high they respond by releasing integration signal pyrogen ( IL-1)

104

If pressure is too low stimulate Vasoconstriction and release Anti- diuretic hormone (ADH)

  • Released from Pituitary gland
  • Stimulate vessels to constrict to increase of BP
  • Stimulate kidney to absorb water (less urine output) to increase Vol and BP
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If pressure is too low stimulate Vasoconstriction and release Angiotensin II hormone

  • Released from liver
  • Potent ( strong powerful)
  • Vasoconstrictor
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If pressure is too low stimulate Vasoconstriction and release Aldosterone hormone

  • Release from adrenal gland
  • Stimulate kidney to increase salt and absorb, water follows
  • increase blood Vol = increase BP
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If pressure is too low stimulate Vasoconstriction and release Renin hormone

  • Kidney
  • sense drooping BP
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If pressure is too high stimulate Vasodilation which produced by Atrial cells of heart and release Atrial Naturistic Peptide

  • Stimulate vessels to decrease the BP by dilate
  • Stimulate kidney to release more urine and it will decrease blood Vol and BP
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If pressure is too high stimulate-------------

Vaso dilation

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If pressure is too low stimulate-------------

Vaso constriction

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3 things Complement does ?

  • 1- enhance inflammation- signaling molecule once activated- cytokine activity and is a chemo-attractant
  • 2- adhere to the surface of microbes and stimulate phagocytosis by macrophages
  • 3- It can create a Membrane attack complex, which pokes a big hole in the membrane of the infected cell, infected cell lyses