Cardiovascular Regulation

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1

Tissue Perfusion

blood flow through tissues

2

Tissue Perfusion Influence

1. Cardiac output
2. peripheral resistance
3. blood regulation

3

Perfusion ensures

Ensure blood flow will
1. occur at appropriate times
2. occur in right regions
3. without drastically changing flow to vital organs

4

Autoregulation- tissue perfusion

Due to chemical changes in interstitial fluids causes immediate local adjustments

5

Neural Mechanisms (2)- tissue perfusion to maintain bp and flow

Arterial BP and blood gases sensed at specific site, automonic adustment of CO and peripheral resistance

6

Endocrine Mechanisms- tissue perfusion

Short and long term change

7

Neural Mechanisms locations

1. cardiac center
2. vasomotor centers

8

Cardioacceleratory

neural mechanisms for sympathetic influence on heart in cardiac center; excitatory!

9

Cardioinhibitory

neural mechanisms for parasympathetic (calm) influence on heart in cardiac center

10

Parasympathetic

the branch of the nervous system that automatically calms us down when the reason for arousal has passed

11

Sympathetic

part of the nervous system that controls the "flight or fight" response; excitatory!

12

Vasoconstrictor neurons

neural mechanisms in large group for adrenergic for equal release norepinephrine (nonradrenaline)

13

Vasodilator neurons

neural mechanisms in skeletal muscle and brain vessels includes cholinegic (release of ACh) and stimulate endothelial (inhibits ACh)

14

Autoregulation

Automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue

15

Precapillary sphincters

smooth muscle cells, guard entrance into capillary, determines into which capillary blood will flow

16

Local vasodilators for autoregulation of precapillary sphincter in single bed (5)

1. Decreased tissue O2 or increased CO2
2. Lactic acid
3. Increasing K+ or H+
4. Inflammation chemicals (histamine & NO)
nitric oxide
5. Elevated local temperature

17

Local vasoconstrictors in autoregulation of precapillary sphincter in single bed (3)

1. Prostaglandins (uterine contractions)
2. Thromboxanes (blood platelets)
3. Endothelins (damage endothelial cells)

18

Baroreceptor Reflexes Functions (2)

1. reflexes monitor the degree of stretch in organ walls of carotid sinuses, aortic sinuses, right atrial wall
2. Adjust CO peripheral resistance to maintain arterial pressure

19

Baroreceptor Reflexes

inhibitor, monitor degree of stretch in organ wall

20

Blood Pressure Falls (baroreceptors)

Baroreceptors inhibited - Cardioinhibitory (calm) center inhibited - Vasomotor (Bf) stimulated- Cardioacceleratory (excited!) stimulated

21

Blood Pressure Rises (baroreceptors)

Baroreceptors stimulated - Cardioinhibitory (calm) center stimulated- Vasomotor (Bf) inhibited- Cardioacceleratory (excited!) inhibited

22

Atrial baroeceptors (atrial reflex)

increased bp in right atrium indicates that blood is not being pumped fast enough therefore *sympathetic stimuli* increases CO and removes backlog

23

Peripheral Vasodilation

reducing *bp* and decreases CO
(same processes as baroreceptor)

24

Peripheral Vasoconstriction

increasing *bp* and increases CO
(same processes as baroreceptor)

25

Chemoreceptors

responds to change in CO2, O2, and pH levels

26

Chemoreceptors Response

Actives cardioacceloratory
Vasomotion stimulated
Inhibits cardioinhibitory

27

Chemoreceptors Location

1. Carotid and Aortic bodies
2. Medulla Oblongata (CSF monitoring vasodialtion in supply to brain)

28

Reflex stimulators

vasomotion (reflex) and cardioaccelatory (nerve pulse)

29

Reflex inhibitors

baroreceptors (reflex) and cardioinhibitory (nerve pulse)

30

Hormonal mechanisms

provide short and long term effects

31

Long term hormonal blood volume (4)

Regulates:
1. ADH (also BP affected)
2. Angiotensin II (also BP affected)
3. Erythropoietin
4. Natriureric peptides - ANP and BNP

32

1. Cardiac output
2. peripheral resistance
3. blood regulation

Tissue perfusion influenced by

33

1. Occurs at appropriate times
2. Occurs in right regions
3. Without drastically changing flow to vital organs

Regulation of tissue perfusion ensures blood flow..

34

Tissue perfusion

blood flow through tissues

35

Cardiac Centers for Neural Mechanisms

sympathetic (cardioacceleratory) vs Parasympathetic (cardioinhibitory) influence on heart

36

local vasodilators

decreased tissue 02 or increase C02

37

local vasodilators - autoregulation

lactic acid

38

local vasodilators - autoregulation

increasing K+ or H+

39

local vasodilators - autoregulation

inflammation chemicals ; histamine and NO

40

Local vasodilators - autoregulation

elevated local temperature

41

local vasocontrictors - autoregulation

prostaglandins -uterine contraction

42

local vascontrictors - autoregulation

thromboxanes- blood platelets

43

local vasocontrictors - autoregulation

endothelins- damaged endothelial cells

44

Baroreceptor Reflex

inhibitor; adjust CO and peripheral resistance to maintain arterial pressure

45

Vasomotion/ cardioaccelatory

blood pressure stimulators- same time

46

barorecptor and cardioinhibtory

blood pressure inhibitors- same time

47

C02, 02, pH levels

chemoreceptors respond to changes in

48

Actives cardioacceloratory
Vasomotion stimulated
Inhibits cardioinhibitory

Chemoreceptors Response

49

Carotid and aortic bodies of medulla oblongata

chemoreceptos location

50

Vasodilation supply in brain

CSF monitors..

51

ADH
Angiotensin II
Eythropoietin
Natriureric peptide - ANP & BNP

Hormonal mechanisms for long term regulation of BV