Lymph & Lymphocytes

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1

Arterial Pulsation

represents two phases of cardiac cycle, systole & diastole

2

Lymph flow (5)

Lower pressure than veins
Rhythmic contraction of vessels
Muscle pump
Arterial pulsation (diastole & systole)
Respiratory pump

3

Immunity Lymph function

clears pathogens, collects interstitial fluid and filter thorough nodes to rid pathogens

4

Lymphocyte cell names

1. T-Cells
2. B-Cells
3. Natural killer (NK)

5

T-Cell

thymus hormone depended 80%
returns to bloodstream

6

B-Cells

matured in bone marrow 10-15%
IL-7 promotes differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies

7

NK Cell

natural killer 5-10% of lymphocytes
'immune surveillance'- attack foreign cells, body cells infected by virus or cancer cell in normal tissue

8

IL-7

Produced by:
- bone marrow stroma
- thymus stroma
Actions:
- differentiation of stem cells into progenitor B & T cells

9

Cytotoxic

T-Cells; attack foreign cell or body cell infected by virus

10

Helper and Suppressor

T-Cells; help regulate (by stimulation or inhibition the activation of T and B cells

11

Macrophages

phagocytosis and presentation of foreign particles
help activate T-cells

12

Dendrite Cells

mobile antigen binding/presenting cells ; (auto) specialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections

13

Lymphoid Nodules

no fibrous capsule; germinal centers contain dividing lyphoctyes; large lymph nodes in pharynx

14

Germinal centers

contain dividing lymphocytes; in lymphoid node

15

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MALT

Aggregated lymphoid nodules that protects epithelial
-deep to gut epithelium, called Peyer's patches
also in appendix and tonsils

16

Lymph Nodes characteristics

Surrounded by fibrous capsules
filters for lymph
help activate immunity

17

lymph node filter

hundreds of them
concentrated near lymphatic trunks
contain macrophages to present antigens

18

lymphatic vessels (3)

right lymphatic duct
brachiocephalic veins
thoracic duct

19

Subcapular space (2)

inner medulla of lymph node
1. Macrophages
2. Dendrite cells (immune response initiation)

20

Outer Cortex (2)

Germinal centers
Contain B cells

21

Deep cortex (2)

Exchange with blood
Mostly T-Cells

22

Medulla (2 cell types)

B cells and plasma cells in the medullary cords

23

Thymus (3)

Site of T-Cell (immunocompetence)
- T-cell division in cortex
-Surrounded by reticular epithelial cells secreting thymic hormones
-Enter medullary blood vessles
-Mature during migration to medulla

24

Spleen (6)

Lymphoid Organ
-Largest lymph organ
-Lymphocyte proliferation
-Removes foreign particles
-Stores products of RBC breakdown
-Erythrocyte production in fetus
-Stores platelets

25

lymphocyte proliferation

lymphocyte that bound with antigen starts to undergo mitosis; derived from B and T cells

26

Red pulp

In spleen; contain RBC, fixed and free macrophages

27

White pulp

In spleen; resemble lymphoid nodules

28

Non-specific immunity

innate immunity; genetically determined- no prior exposure of antibody production involve

29

Innate

non-specific immunity; same each time exposed

30

Acquired

specific, development of recognition response quicker each time exposed

31

Non Defense

Innate; 2 lines of defense
1. Physical barrier
2. Fever, Inflammation, and cell type

32

Phagocytic Cells

Innate; englufs pathogens/ cell debris

33

Immunological Surveillance

Natural killer cells

34

Interferon

chemical messengers against viral

35

Complement

circulating protein, assist antibodies

36

Inflammation

local response to infection/ injury

37

Fever

systemic, accelerates metabolism & defense activity

38

Systemic

of or pertaining to the entire body; relating to a system or systems

39

Skin (3)

1. acts as a physical barrier to invasion
2. keratin is resistance to bacterial enzymes/toxins
3. secretions (sebaceous, and eccrine sweat glands

40

Eccrine sweat gland

most numerous sweat-producing exocrine gland in the skin; primarily for cooling

41

Sebaceous sweat gland

holocrine secretion; produces sebum into hair follicles to lubricate hair and skin

42

Mucosae location

digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive tracts

43

Mucosae characteristic

1. line body cavities
2. stomach0 secretes HCI
3. Saliva & lacrimal (eye duct) fluid secretion (lysozymes)

44

lysozymes

An enzym in mucus, tears, and saliva
destroys bacteria by dissolving their cell wall

45

mucus secretion

trap bacterial invaders aided by enzymes, antibodies, and acid pH