Intergation defence & Immune Cell Overview

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1

Non-Specific Defense (2)

1. Nk / Macrophages- direct physical and chemical attack
2. Complement proteins- attack by circulating proteins

2

Specific Defense- Cell Mediated

Activation of T-cells
Production of memory and cytotoxic T cells
Maturation & migration of cytotoxic T cells

3

Helper T cell stimulation

Activation of T and B cells

4

Suppressor T cell inhibit

activation of T and B cell
Production of memory T & B
Production of T cytotoxic and B plasma cells

5

Specific Defense - Antibody Mediated

Activation of B-cells
Production of memory and plasma B cells
Maturation of plasma cell
Production of Antibodies

6

Innate Immunity

genetically determined- no prior exposure of antibody production involved

7

Acquired Immunity

produced by prior exposure of antibody production

8

Passive Immunity

produced by transfer of antibodies from another person

9

Natural acquired passive immunity

conferred by transfer of maternal antibodies across placenta or in breast milk

10

Induced acquired passive immunity

conferred by administration of antibodies to combat infection

11

Active immunity

produced by antibodies that develop in response to antigens
(immune response)

12

Induced active immunity

develops after administration of antigens to prevent disease

13

Naturally acquired active immunity

develops after exposure to antigens in an environment

14

Neutrophils

phagocytosis; stimulation of inflammation

15

Eosinophils

phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes; suppression of inflammation; participation in allergic response

16

Mast cell and Basophils

stimulation and coordination of inflammation by release of histamine, herapin , leukotrienes, prostaglandins

17

Substance released by mast cell and basophils

histamine, herapin, leukotrienes, prostaglandins

18

Macrophages (4)

free and fixed, kupffer cells, microglia
-phagocytosis;
-antigen processing;
-antigen presentation with Class II MHC proteins;
-secretion of cytokines, especially interleukins and interferons

19

Secretion of macrophages cells (3)

cytokines , interleukins and interferons

20

Interferon

non-specific immunity , interfere with viral replication within cells

21

Antigen processing

intracellular degradation of proteins into peptides that bind to MHC molecules for presentation to T-cells

22

Macrophages cell types (3)

-free and fixed macrophages
-kupffer cell
-microglia

23

Kupffer

carry on phagocytosis in the liver

24

Microglia

Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system

25

Dendritic Cell name

Langerhans cells

26

Dendritic Cell- Langerhans (4)

-pinocytosis
-antigen processing
-antigen presentation
-bound to Class II MHC Proteins

27

Class II MHC

antigen-presenting cells
macrophages and Dendritic (Langerhans)

28

Lymphocyte cell types (6)

-NK cells
-Cytotoxic T cells (Tc, CD8 marker)
-Suppressor T cells (Ts, CD8 marker)
-Helper T cells, (Th, CD4 marker)
-B cells
-Memory cells ( Ts, Th, B)

29

Tc components

cytotoxic - CD8 marker

30

Th components

helper T - CD4 marker

31

Ts components

Suppressor - CD8 marker

32

Memory cell component

Ts, Th, B

33

CD8 marker

Tc and Ts

34

CD4 marker

Th

35

Ts/Th and B cells

memory cell types

36

Nk cells

destruction of plasma membrane contains abnormal antigens (lymphocyte)

37

Cytotoxic T cells

LYMPHOCYTE- CD8 MARKER
-Lysis of plasma membrane containing antigens bound to Class I MHC proteins
-secretion of perforins, defensins, lymphotoxins, other cytokines

38

Class I MHC proteins

lymphocyte - cytotoxic T cells CD8 marker

39

Cytotoxic t cell secretion (4)

perforins, defensins, lymphotoxins, & other cytokines

40

Helper T cells

LYMPHOCYTE- CD4 MARKER
-secretion of cytokines that stimulate cell-mediated & antibody-mediated immunity,
-activation of sensitized B cells

41

B Cell

LYMPHOCYTE
-differentiation into plasma cells
-secrete antibodies and provide antibody-mediated immunity

42

Antibody-mediated immunity (4)

*B cells - memory
T helper cells - CD4 markers
T suppressor cells - CD8 marker
*Plasma cells
*Antibodies

43

Cell-mediated immunity

*T cytotoxins cells - CD8 marker
T helper cells - CD4 marker
T suppressor cells - CD8 marker
*Memory T cell

44

Suppressor T Cells

LYMPHOCYTE - CD8 MARKER
Secretion of suppression factors that inhibit the immune response

45

Memory cells

LYMPHOCYTE- Ts, Th, B
-produced during the activation of T and B cells
-remain in tissue awaiting re-arrival of antigens

46

Time- course of Bacterial defence

Quickest - Slowest
1. NK cells
2. Neutrophills
3. Cytotoxic T cells
4. Macrophages
5. Plasma cells
6. Antibody titer

47

Antibody titer

show levels of antibody in the blood stream.

48

Bacteria pathway - Tc cell

CELL mediated
1. Macrophages activation
2. antigen presentation
3. Activation of cytotoxic T cell
4. Destruction of bacteria via cell lysis

49

Bacteria pathway - Th cell

ANTIBODY mediated
1. Macrophages activation
*2. Antigen presentation
*3. Activation of helper T cell
*4. Activation of B cell
*5. Antibody production by plasma cells
6. Destruction of bacteria via cell lysis

50

Virus pathway - phagocytosis

1. Infection of or uptake by phagocytosis
*2. Antigen presentation
*3. Activation of helper T cell
*4. Activation of B cell
*5. Antibody production by plasma cells
6. Destruction of virus by prevention of cell entry

51

Virus pathway - infection antigen appearance in membrane

1. Infection of tissue cells
2. Antigen appearance in plasma membrane
3. Activation of cytotoxic T cells
or
3. Stimulation of NK cell
4. Destruction of infected cells

52

Virus pathway - interferon release

1. Infection of tissue cells
2. Interferon release
3. Increased resistance to viral infection and spread
*interferon- interferes with viral infection

53

autografts

same person - organ transplant

54

isograpfts

genetically identical individual - organ transplant

55

Allografts

from same species - organ transplant

56

Xenografts

from another species - organ transplant

57

Corticosteroids

prevent inflammation and rejection for organ transplant

58

immunosuppressant drugs

Drugs that suppress the immune system after/before a transplant and prevent rejection in organ transplant