Ch.22- Lymphatic System & Immunity Overview

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1

Lymph Flow

arterial pulsation/ respiratory pump
skeletal muscle pump- benefits
rhythmic contractions of vessels
*lower pressure than veins

2

Immune functions

1. Clears pathogens
2. Collects interstitial fluid and filter it through nodes to rid pathogens

3

Lymphocytes

T-Cells (thymus depended) *80%*
B-Cells (bone marrow derived) 10-15%
NK Cells (natural killer) 5-10%

4

Cytotoxic

T-Cell
Attack foreign infected cell from *virus*
-cell mediated immunity

5

Helper and Suppressor Cells

T-Cell
Regulate (stimulation or inhibition) the activation of T and B Cells

6

B-Cell

Differentiate into plasma cells that produce *antibodies*
-bind to antigens
-humoral immunity

7

Macrophages (2)

1. Phagocytosis and presentation of foreign particles (presents antigens)
2. *Help activate T-Cells*

8

T-Cells

divide under the influence of thymic hormones ( divide repetitively) and
return to blood stream

9

B-Cell Development

Mature in bone marrow
IL-7 promotes differentiation for *plasma antibodies*

10

Lymphoid Nodules

Lack fibrous capsule
Germinal center contain dividing lymphocytes (growth center)

11

Tonsils

Large lymphoid nodules in walls of pharynx
-palatine tonsils
-pharyngeal tonsils
- lingual tonsils

12

MALT muscosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Lymphoid nodule
aggregated nodules that protects epithelial
-gut, appendix, tonsils

13

MALT location

deep in gut epithelium (peyer's patches)
also in appendix and tonsils

14

Lymphoid Node for Tonsils

*NO* fibrous capsule
Germinal center divide lymphocytes

15

Medulla

center lymphoid node
produce b-cells and *plasma cell* in cords

16

Outer Cortex

lymphoid node contain
-*B-cells and germinal centers*

17

Cortex

lymphoid node contain T-cells

18

Deep Cortex

lymphoid node structure
-exchange w blood
-mostly T-Cells

19

Thymus

Site of T-cell (immunocompetence)
T-Cells division in cortex surrounded by reticular epithelial cells secreting thymus hormones (prepped T-cells)
Enter medullary blood vessels

20

Spleen (6)

Largest lymph organ
*"lymphoid node for blood" *
lymphocyte proliferation
removes foreign particles - phagocytosis
stores products of RBC breakdown, erythrocytes production in fetus
stores platelets

21

White pulp

resembles lymphoid node contain lymphocytes for immune responce

22

Red pulp

contains RBCS, *fixed/free macrophages*

23

Non-specific Immunity

"never learn" from previous injection

24

Innate Immunity

Genetically determined
*non-specific; same each time exposed

25

Non-specific line of defense

1. physical barriers
2. phagocytic cells
immunological surveillance (NK cell)
interferons- cell messenger attack viral
complement
inflammation
fever

26

Skin

Physical barriers
keratin resistant against outside pathogens
Secretion (sebaceous and eccrine sweat)

27

Mucosae

physical barrier
lines body cavities
secretes HCI- stomach
Saliva & lacrimal fluid secretion (lysozyme)

28

Macrophages

Phagocytes- main type
Delved from monocytes
Search out invaders

29

Fixed macrophages

permeant residents of organs to product

30

Immunological Surveillance

search for usual size cell, macrophage cell

31

Interferons

2nd messenger like

32

Complement System

proteins together

33

Inflammatory Response

1. Slow spread of pathogens
2. Mobilize defense
3. Sets stage for repair

34

Inflammatory occurs

Response to killing of cell/damage to CT fibrils
Cells release proteins, prostaglandin, K +

35

Histamine

increases vessel permeability, accelerates localized blood flow,

36

T-Cells

80%; thymus dependent

37

B Cell

10-15%; *B*one marrow deprived

38

NK Cell

5-10% of lymphocyte
attack foreign, virus infected or cancer cells
migrate throughout body

39

Dendritic Cell

cell that ingests antigens and presents them to T cells.

40

Lymphopoises

lymphocyte production

41

Stroma cell

produces IL-7 cytokine for differentiation of B-cells (plasma antibodies)

42

Cytokine

Protein (made by T lymphocytes) that aids antigen destruction

43

T-Cell Thymus Process

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Lymphoid Stem Cell
3. Leaves Bone Marrow to Thymus
4. Thymus hormone influence
5. Produces different T-cell

44

T-Cell Tissue Process

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Lymphoid Stem Cell
3. Leaves Bone Marrow to Thymus
4. Mature T-cell (thymus hormones)
a. Transport in blood stream
-necessary enter tissue
-*cell mediated*
b. Returns to bone marrow for daughter
cell production

45

B-Cell Process

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Lymphoid Stem Cell
3. IL-7
4. Mature cell
5. Transports into tissue
-*antibody-mediated*

46

NK Process

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Lymphoid Stem Cell
3. *IL- 7*
4. Mature
5. Immunological Surveillance

47

Immature Bone Marrow Cell

B Cells and NK - remain in bone marrow immature until release for immune attack

48

Lymphoid Nodules Location (4)

Tonsils
Digestion
Urine tract
Spleen

49

Lymphocytes in Nodules

located in desely packed areas of areolar tissue

50

Palatine tonsil

tonsil posterior/inferior of oral cavity and pharynx

51

Lingual tonsil

tonsil in deep mucous ET covering base of tongue

52

Pharyngeal

*Adenoid*
tonsil posterior superior walls of nasopharynx

53

Lymph Nodes of MALT

*surround by fibrous capsule*
hundreds of filters,
contain macrophages for antigens,
help active immunity

54

Lymphatic Vessels (3)

Right thoracic duct
Brachiocephalic Vein
Thoracic duct

55

Lymph Node Structure

Subcapsular space
Outer cortex
Deep cortex
Medulla

56

Immunocompetence

immune response after antigen exposure

57

Thymus cortex

t-cell dividing center

58

Thymus medulla

t-cell mature during migration to this

59

Reticular Epithelial cell

surrounding tissue that secrets thymic hormones in thymus for T-cell

60

Subscapular space

outer region in lymph node contains
-*macrophages*
-*dendritic cells (initiate immune response)*

61

lymphocyte proliferation

rapid reproduction of lymphocytes after antigen exposure

62

Spleen Initiation

initiated by B and T cell after antigen exposure

63

Acquired Specific

development of recognition
response is quicker each time exposed

64

Nonspecific 2nd line of Defense (^)

Phagocytic cells
immunological surveillance
interferons
complemnt
inflammation
fever

65

Phagocytic cell

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
engulf pathogens/cell debris

66

Immunological Surveillance

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
Nk cell

67

Interferons

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
chemical messengers against viral attack

68

Complement

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
circulating proteins, *assits antibodies*

69

Inflammation

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
local response to infection/injury

70

Fever

2nd line of defense - nonspecific
systemic, accelerates metabolism and defense activity

71

Sebaceous and Eccrine Sweat

secreting of skin (2)

72

Secretion of Skin chemicals

bacterial chemicals
lysozymes- destructive enzymes
*antibodies*

73

Mucus secretion fuction

trap bacterial invaders aided by
-enzymes
-antibodies
-acid pH

74

Mucosae Locations

digestive
respiratory tract
urinary
reproductive tract

75

Phagocytes

1st line of defencte

76

Free macrophages

search out invaders move in blood or through tissue

77

Macrophages

*Consume dead pathogens that have been killed by antibodies*
Circulate in blood contain
-neutrophil- infect bacteria quick
- eosinophil- phagocytic parasitic worms

78

Neutrophil

macrophage in blood- collect dead pathogens killed by antibody
-infect bacteria quick

79

Eosinophil

macrophage in blood- collect dead pathogens killed by antibody
-phagocytic against parasitc worms

80

Macrophages Functions (3)

engulf pathogens - lysosomal enzyme
bind/remove pathogens from IS fluid
destruction by secretion

81

Lysosomal enzyme

How do macrophages destroy and engulf pathogens?

82

Macrophages toxic secretion

Nitric Oxide
H202
*Tumor Necrosis Factor*

83

Perforins

How do NK cell attack cell membranes?

84

NK cells

body killer for abnormal cells
-Self: viral or cancerous
-Bacterial

85

Lack or difference of surface repectors

What do Nk cells detect?

86

NK cell destruction

1. Recognition of abnormal surface- attach to cell
2. Rotation of Golgi
3. Release of perforin
4. Perforation and lysis of cell

87

Perforation

creates large pores in membrane