Biology chapter 4

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1

Population Density

Number of organisms per unit area

2

Dispersion

pattern of spacing of a population within an area

3

abiotic

any nonliving factor in an organism's environment

4

biotic

any living factor in an organism's environment

5

Density Independent Factors

factors that do NOT depend on the number of members in population per unit area
ie: fire

6

Density Dependent Factor

factors that do depend on the number of members in a population area
ie: disease, competition, parasites

7

Population Growth Rate

explanation of how fast population grows

8

Natality

birthrate over a given time

9

Mortality

number of deaths

10

Emigration

number of individuals moving away

11

Immigration

number of deaths

12

Carrying Capacity

Maximum number of individuals that an environment can support

13

Demography

study of human population size, density, distribution, movement, and birth/death rates

14

Demographic transition

Change in population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

15

Zero Population Growth ZPG

Births + immigration = death + emigration

16

Age Structure

Number of males and females in each age group
pre-productive (before 20 years)
reproductive (20-44 years)
post-productive (44 and up)

17

S-shaped graph

logistic growth

18

4 Density-dependent factors

competition, predation, parasites, disease

19

3 density-independent factors

weather, natural disasters, human activity

20

J-curved graph

exponential growth

21

Emigration causes

lack of space
shortage of food
seasonal changes/migration

22

Carrying capacity is limited by these things

water
energy
oxygen
nutrients

23

3 types of dispersion

uniform
clumped
random

24

Explain how density-dependent and density independent factors can limit human populations 4 sentences

dependent=disease, competition, parasites
independent=fire, natural occurrences like weather

25

What things limit human population growth

war
famine
disease

26

Three ways humans altered the environment

agriculture and domestication of animals to increase human food supply
technology and medicine improved the chances of human survival
improved shelter protests humans from climate

27

Calculation for population growth rate

Birthrate - death rate + migration rate
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10