CH 26- Urinary Overview; Kidney Anatomy, Nephron

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1

Excretion

removal of organic wastes from body fluids

2

Elimination

mechanisms; discharge out into environment

3

Urinary System

regulation of plasma solute concentrations

4

Urinary System

regulation of blood vessel and blood pressure

5

Urinary System

stabilize blood pH

6

Urinary System

Conserve nutrients

7

Urinary System

assist in detoxification

8

Regulation of plasma solute, BV & BP, stabilize *blood* pH, conserve nutrients, assist in detoxification

urinary system functions (6)

9

Pyramids, papilla, columns

structures in the kidney medulla (3)

10

major and minor

structures in the kidney calyces (2)

11

Calyces

kidney structure; collecting urine draining from pyramids and empty it into the pelvis

12

Renal cortex, renal medulla, calyces, renal pelvis, ureter

5 major structures of the kidney

13

Inter Lobar arteries

vessel through renal columns between lobes

14

Cortical Radiate arteries

vessel give rise to afferent arterioles supplying glomerulus

15

Papillary duct (only other portion of collecting duct)

deliver of urine to minor calyx

16

Nephron loop

*further* reabsorption of water (descending limb) and Na and Cl ions (ascending limb

17

Water

descending limb reabsorbs this

18

sodium and chloride

ascending limb of nephron loop reabsorbs this

19

Renal corpuscle

production of filtrate

20

Proximal convoluted tubule

reabsorption of water, ions, and *all organic nutrients*

21

Distal convoluted tubule

secretion of ions, acids, drugs, toxins

22

Distal convoluted tubule

variable reabsorption of water, sodium ions and calcium ions *under hormonal control*

23

Collecting ducts

variable reabsorption of water and reabsorption or secretion of sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate ions

24

20-25%

% of blood supply through kidneys

25

collecting ducts, papillary duct

collecting system structures (2)

26

proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, renal corpuscle

nephron structures (4)

27

proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting ducts, nephron loop

structures in nephron and collecting that reabsorb (4)

28

proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting ducts

structures in nephron and collecting that secrete (3)

29

Nephron

blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney

30

short, long loop

types of nephron

31

Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, and Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

location of the nephron (3)

32

Bowman's capsule

surrounds glomerulus

33

Bowman's capsule

structure lined by *capsular* epithelium

34

Bowman's capsule

structure has *capsular* space btw visceral and capsular epithelial

35

Renal corpuscle

the glomerulus (nephron) is located in this major region of the kidney

36

glomerulus

these structures contains a cluster of *fenestrated* capillaries

37

fenestrated

what type of capillaries are located inside the glomerulus

38

capillaries of glomerulus

this structures is covered with podocytes or pedicles

39

afferent, efferent

the fenestrated capillaries of the glomerulus contain these arterioles for filtrating

40

Ascending (thick), Descending (thin) limbs

Loop of Henle structures

41

Tubule system

system that reabsorbs nutrients, and 90% of filtrated water

42

Tubule system

system that secrete additional waste products into lumen

43

Loop of Henle

aka nephron loop

44

proximal convoluted tubule

tubule; simple cuboidal; *microvilli*

45

distal convoluted tubule

tubule; simple cuboidal; *no* microvilli

46

proximal convoluted tubule

this tubule reabsorb nutrients/ions/water from filtrate into peritubular fluid, some secretion

47

distal convoluted tubule

tubule *active* secrete of ions, acids, drugs, toxins

48

distal convoluted tubule

*selective* reabsorption of Na, Ca, Cl, and water

49

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

the macula densa is located in this structure

50

Glomerulus and bowman's capsule

nephron structures in the renal corpuscle

51

Macula densa

region of the DCT, contains taller epithelial cells

52

Afferent

juxtaglomerular cells with modified smooth muscle cells is located in this arteriole

53

Renin and Erythropoietin

what does the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete? (2)

54

capillaries

the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole can constrict what structure?

55

smooth muscles

the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole contain what cell type

56

Juxtameduallary

long nephrons

57

Cortical

short nephrons 85%

58

Descending (thin)

Loop of Henle region contains squamous ET and water absorption

59

Ascending (thick)

Loop of Henle region contains simple cuboidal pumping Na and Cl

60

Tubular System

reabsorbs nutrient
reabsorbs 90% of filtrate water
secretes waste product into lumen

61

Proximal Convoluted tubule

tubular
simple cuboidal with microvilli

62

Distal Convoluted tubule

tubular
simple cuboidal NO microvilli

63

PCT

reabsorbs nutrients, ions, water from filtrate into peritubular fluid (everything)
some secretion

64

DCT

active secretion of ions, acids, drugs, toxins
Reabsorption of Na, Ca, Cl