Orientation and Ethics Final (Part 1)

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The basis for ethical decision making

  • autonomy
  • nonmalfecence
  • beneficence
  • justice
  • fidelity

Name and describe an ethical decision-making model

Beneficence model

  • ABCDE worksheet
  • assessment, benefit, consequences/ consultation, duty, education

Name the different types of employment settings for CMHC

  • community mental health centers
  • private practice
  • hospital settings
  • substance abuse tx centers
  • correctional facilities
  • nonprofit organizations
  • school settings

What are the limits of confidentiality?

  • duty to warn
  • harm to self/ others
  • reports of abuse towards vulnerable individuals (children, elders)

Social advocacy

  • Refers to any action taken on behalf of a client to assure fair and equitable tx
  • Counselors who engage in advocacy take into consideration the impact of oppression, privilege, and discrimination on the mental health of their clients
  • Social justice and social advocacy: the fifth force
    • Social advocacy has play an improvement role in dev. And evolution of the counseling profession
    • It continues to serve as primary force in the maturation of the counseling profession

What is the purpose of diagnosis?

  • creates a common language between mental health professionals
  • research included in the DSM to help understand etiology and course
  • helps guide tx plan

What are the benefits of diagnosis?

  • guides tx planning
  • can create community for client
  • common language

What are the challenges of diagnosis?

  • necessary for insurance
  • can be stigmatizing
  • giving a dx can sometimes make the symptoms worse

Steps in case concpetualization

1. ID client's problem

2. Assign DSM diagnosis

3. What were the antecedents to the problem

4. Why are the problems occurring

5. What are the client's strengths

6. What is your overall conceptualization of the client's problem


types of managed care plans

  • HMOs
  • PPOs
  • POS
  • EAPs


  • Health management organizations
  • Services delivered through a network of providers. Out of network services are discouraged through higher costs
  • PCP acts as “gatekeeper” management the provision of services for each individual. Services only provided with a referral
  • Most limiting of all plans but wide range of services for minimal out of pocket expenses


  • Preferred provider organization
  • Network of health care providers. Services out of network discouraged with high out of pocket costs
  • No requirement for a PCP; subscribers do not need a referral for specialist services
  • Lower restrictions, more choice for subscribers, but higher out of pocket chargers compared to HMOs


  • Employee assistance programs
  • Offered by employers as a part of their employee benefits package
  • Employer provides insurance coverage for limited number of counseling session
  • brief therapy, referred for more sessions


  • Point of service plans
  • Subscribers choose to go through either a HMO or PPO plan each time they access services
  • Use of PCP encouraged with lower copayments. Out of pocket network discouraged with higher costs